Seoul (Korean pronunciation: [sʌ.ul] ( listen), English /soʊl/, "Capital City", from ancient Sillan "Seorabeol"), officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of more than 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world. The Seoul National Capital Area, which includes the surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, is the world's second largest metropolitan area with more than 25 million inhabitants. One of every five South Koreans live in Seoul; half of South Koreans live in the metropolitan area, as well as 275,000 international residents.
Situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back more than 2,000 years when it was founded in 18 BCE by Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, who established its capital in what is now southeast Seoul. It continued as the capital of Korea under the Joseon Dynasty and the Korean Empire. The Seoul National Capital Area contains four UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeokgung, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by mountains, the tallest being Bukhansan, the world's most visited national park. Modern landmarks include the N Seoul Tower, Seoul's tallest observation tower, Lotte World, the world's largest indoor theme park, Moonlight Rainbow Fountain, the world's longest bridge fountain and Times Square featuring the world's largest cinema screen.
Today, Seoul is considered a leading global city, ranking sixth in the 2012 Global Financial Centres Index, eighth in the 2012 Global Cities Index and seventh in the 2011 Global Power City Index. The metropolis is involved in many global affairs, exerting rising influence as the host of the fifth most international conferences worldwide in 2010. It is one of the world's top ten financial and commercial centers, home to major multinational conglomerates such as Samsung, LG and Hyundai-Kia. In 2008, Seoul was named the world's sixth most economically powerful city by Forbes. Seoul was voted the top travel destination by Chinese, Japanese and Thai tourists for a third consecutive year in 2011.
Seoul has much technologically advanced infrastructure. It has the world's highest fibre-optic broadband penetration at 34.4%. It was the world's first city to introduce Digital Multimedia Broadcasting for television and radio, and WiBro for data, both serviced in all subway lines and buses along with 4G LTE and WiFi. Seoul Station is the main terminal of the KTX bullet train and the Seoul Subway is the world's second most highly used, featuring the longest longest circular line in the world. It is considered the world's best subway system noted for its cleanliness, composure and easy of use and is the only subway with all all stations having platform screen doors. Seoul shares a unified public transportation system with Incheon and Gyeonggi allowing passengers to transfer freely from subway or bus using the T-money smart card, and is connected via AREX to Incheon International Airport, rated the best airport worldwide since 2005 by Airports Council International.
Seoul hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup and the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2010 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design.
The city has been known in the past by the names Wirye-seong (위례성; 慰禮城, Baekje era), Hanju (한주; 漢州, Silla era), Namgyeong (남경; 南京, Goryeo era), Hanseong (한성; 漢城, Baekje and Joseon era), Hanyang (한양; 漢陽, Joseon era), Gyeongseong (경성; 京城, during colonial era). Its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city," which is believed to be derived from the word, Seorabeol (서라벌; 徐羅伐), which originally referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.
Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja (Chinese characters used in the Korean language). On January 18, 2005, Seoul government officially changed its official Chinese language name to Shou'er (simplified Chinese: 首尔; traditional Chinese: 首爾; pinyin: shǒu'ěr) from the historic Hanseong (simplified Chinese: 汉城; traditional Chinese: 漢城; pinyin: hànchéng), whose use is still common though.
Settlement began in Baekje, Wirye-seong, in 17 BC. The location of that site is thought to be within the boundaries of modern day Seoul, and the remains may be at Pungnap Toseong or Mongchon Toseong. It became the capital of the Joseon Dynasty in 1394. There were some modernization efforts by the late 19th century and Seoul became the first city in East Asia to have electricity, trolley cars, water, telephone, and telegraph systems all at the same time. During the Japanese colonial period in the early 20th century, the city was called Gyeongseong (경성, lit. "Capital City"; Japanese: Keijō (京城?)). After independence in 1946, Koreans renamed the city Seoul (which also means "Capital City" in Korean). In 1949, Seoul was separated from Gyeonggi Province and was granted status as "Seoul Special City". In 1950, during the Korean War, Seoul was occupied by North Korean troops and the city was almost entirely destroyed. The city was retaken by UN Forces on 14 March 1951. Since then, the city boundary has steadily grown into surrounding administrative divisions of Gimpo, Goyang, Gwangju, Shiheung, and Yangju counties. The current boundaries were established in 1995.
Seoul is in the northwest of South Korea. Seoul proper comprises 605.25 km2, with a radius of approximately 15 km, roughly bisected into northern and southern halves by the Han River. The Han River and its surrounding area played an important role in Korean history. The Three Kingdoms of Korea strove to take control of this land, where the river was used as a trade route to China (via the Yellow Sea). The river is no longer actively used for navigation, because its estuary is located at the borders of the two Koreas, with civilian entry barred. The city is bordered by eight mountains, as well as the more level lands of the Han River plain and western areas.
Seoul has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwa). Summers are generally hot and humid, with the East Asian monsoon taking place from June until July. August, the warmest month, has an average temperature of 22.4 to 29.6 °C (72 to 85 °F) with higher temperatures possible. Winters are often relatively cold with an average January temperature of -5.9 to 1.5 °C (21.4 to 34.7 °F) and are generally much drier than summers, with an average of 28 days of snow annually.
|Climate data for Seoul (1981−2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||1.5 |
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−2.4 |
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.9 |
|Precipitation mm (inches)||20.8 |
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||6.5||5.8||7.4||7.8||9.0||9.9||16.3||14.6||9.1||6.3||8.7||7.4||108.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||160.3||163.3||189.0||205.0||213.0||182.0||120.0||152.5||176.2||198.8||153.2||152.6||2,066.0|
|Source: Korea Meteorological Administration |
Seoul is divided into 25 gu (구; 區) (district). The gu vary greatly in area (from 10 to 47 km2) and population (from less than 140,000 to 630,000). Songpa has the most people, while Seocho, the largest area. The government of each gu handles many of the functions that are handled by city governments in other jurisdictions. Each gu is divided into "dong" (동; 洞) or neighbourhoods. Some gu have only a few dong while others like Jongno-gu have a very large number of distinct neighborhoods. Gu of Seoul consist of 522 administrative dongs (행정동) in total. Dong are also sub-divided into 13,787 tong (통; 統), which are further divided into 102,796 ban in total.
| || |
Seoul proper is noted for its population density, which is almost twice that of New York and eight times greater than Rome, though slightly less than Paris. Its metropolitan area is the densest in the OECD. Nearly all of Seoul's residents are Korean, with some small Chinese and Japanese minorities. As of 2009, the city’s population is 10,208,302. The number of foreigners living in Seoul is 255,501 in 2010 according to Seoul officials. As of the end of June 2011, 10.29 million Republic of Korea citizens lived in the city. This was a .24% decrease from the end of 2010. As of June 2011, 281,780 foreigners were located in Seoul. Of them, 186,631 foreigners (66%) were Chinese citizens of Korean nationality. This was a 8.84% increase from the end of 2010 and a 12.85% increase from June 2010. The next largest group was Chinese citizens who are not of Korean nationality; 29,901 of them resided in Seoul. The next highest group consisted of the 9,999 United States citizens who were not of Korean nationality. The next highest group were the Republic of China (Taiwan) citizens, at 8,717.
The two major religions in Seoul are Buddhism and Confucianism. Other religions include Christianity and Shamanism.
As the headquarters for Samsung, LG, Hyundai, Kia and SK, Seoul has become a major business hub. Although it accounts for only 0.6 percent of South Korea's land area, Seoul generates 21 percent of the country's GDP.
A large concentration of international companies are headquartered in Seoul. International banks with branches in Seoul include Citigroup, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase, Barclays, Grupo Santander, UBS, Credit Suisse, UniCredit, Société Générale, Calyon, BBVA, Macquarie Group, ING Bank, State Street and Standard Chartered. The Korea Exchange Bank is also headquartered in the city.
The largest market in South Korea, the Dongdaemun Market, is located in Seoul. Myeongdong is a shopping and entertainment area in downtown Seoul with mid- to high-end stores, fashion boutiques and international brand outlets. The nearby Namdaemun Market, named after the Namdaemun Gate, is the oldest continually running market in Seoul. Sinchon is a shopping area that caters mainly to a younger and university student crowd.
Insadong is the cultural art market of Seoul, where traditional and modern Korean artworks, such as paintings, sculptures and calligraphy are sold. Hwanghak-dong Flea Market and Janganpyeong Antique Market also offer antique products. Some shops for local designers have opened in Samcheong-dong, where numerous small art galleries are located. Itaewon caters mainly to foreign tourists and American soldiers based in the city. The Gangnam district is one of the most affluent areas in Seoul and is noted for the fashionable and upscale Apgujeong-dong and Cheongdam-dong areas and the COEX Mall. Wholesale markets include Noryangjin Fisheries Wholesale Market and Garak Market. The Yongsan Electronics Market is the largest electronics market in Asia. The Gasan Digital Complex also has an extensive variety of electronic products.
Seoul provides free wifi access in outdoor spaces. This 47.7 billion won ($44 million) project will give residents and visitors Internet access at 10,430 parks, streets and other public places by 2015.
The traditional heart of Seoul is the old Joseon Dynasty city, now the downtown area, where most palaces, government offices, corporate headquarters, hotels, and traditional markets are located. Cheonggyecheon, a stream that runs from west to east through the valley before emptying into the Han River, was for many years covered with concrete, but was recently restored through an urban revival project in 2005. The most historically significant street in Seoul is Jongno, meaning "Bell Street," on which one can find Bosingak, a pavilion containing a large bell. The bell signaled the different times of the day and therefore controlled the four major gates to the city. The only time it is usually rung now is at midnight on New Year's Eve, when it is rung thirty-three times. It was, however, rung on the day that President Kim Dae-jung took office. To the north of downtown is Bukhan Mountain, and to the south is the smaller Namsan. Further south are the old suburbs of Yongsan-gu and Mapo-gu. Across the Han River are the newer and wealthier areas of Gangnam-gu, Seocho-gu and surrounding neighborhoods.
Seoul has many historical and cultural landmarks. In Amsa-dong Prehistoric Settlement Site, Gangdong-gu, neolithic remains were excavated and accidentally discovered by a flood in 1925.
Urban and civil planning was a key concept when Seoul was first designed to serve as a capital in the late 14th century. The Joseon Dynasty built "Five Grand Palaces" in Seoul: Changdeokgung, Changgyeonggung, Deoksugung, Gyeongbokgung and Gyeonghuigung, all of which are located in the district of Jongno-gu and Jung-gu. Among them, Changdeokgung was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1997 as an "outstanding example of Far Eastern palace architecture and garden design". The main palace, Gyeongbokgung. is currently being restored to its original form. The palaces are considered exemplary architecture of the Joseon period. Beside the palaces, Unhyeongung is known for being the royal residence of Regent Daewongun, the father of Emperor Gojong at the end of the Joseon Dynasty.
Seoul has been surrounded by walls that were built to regulate visitors from other regions and protect the city in case of invasion. Pungnap Toseong is a flat earthen wall built at the edge of the Han River which is widely believed to be the site of Wiryeseong. Mongchon Toseong (몽촌토성; 蒙村土城) is another earthen wall built during the Baekje period which is now located inside the Olympic Park. The Fortress Wall of Seoul was built early in the Joseon Dynasty for protection of the city. After many centuries of destruction and rebuilding, approximately 2/3 of the wall remains, as well as six of the original eight gates. These gates include Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun, commonly known as Namdaemun (South Great Gate) and Dongdaemun (East Great Gate). Namdaemun was the oldest wooden gate until a 2008 arson attack, and is currently undergoing reconstruction. Situated near the gates are the traditional markets and largest shopping center, Namdaemun Market and Dongdaemun Market.
There are also many buildings constructed with international styles in the late-19th and early-20th centuries. The Independence Gate was built in 1897 to inspire an independent spirit. Seoul Station was opened in 1900 as Gyeongseong Station.
Major modern landmarks in Seoul include the Korea Finance Building, N Seoul Tower, the World Trade Center and the seven-skyscraper residence Tower Palace. These and various high-rise office buildings, like the Gangnam Finance Center and Jongno Tower, dominate the city's skyline. Due to its high density, Seoul has a vast array of skyscrapers; the city council is now planning a series of new highrises, including a 640-meter business center in Sangam Digital Media City district and the 523-meter Lotte World 2 Tower in the Jamsil district of Songpa-gu and Gangdong-gu.
The World Trade Center of Korea, located in Gangnam-gu, hosts various expositions and conferences. Also in Gangnam-gu is the COEX Mall, a large indoor shopping and entertainment complex. Downstream from Gangnam-gu is Yeouido, a island that is home to the National Assembly, major broadcasting studios, and a number of large office buildings, as well as the Korea Finance Building and the world's largest Pentecostal church. The Olympic Stadium, Olympic Park, and Lotte World are located in Songpa-gu, on the south side of the Han River, upstream from Gangnam-gu.
In recognition of all the notable recent buildings erected in the city, in 2010 Seoul was designated the World Design Capital for the year. As of 2011, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza & Park, designed by Zaha Hadid, is still under construction as is the new wave-shaped City Hall.
Seoul is home to over 100 museums, including three national and nine official municipal museums. The National Museum of Korea is the most representative of museums in not only Seoul but all of South Korea. Since its establishment in 1945, the museum has built a collection of 150,000 artifacts. In October 2005, the museum moved to a new building in Yongsan Family Park. The National Folk Museum is situated on the grounds of the Gyeongbokgung Palace in the district of Jongno-gu and uses replicas of historical objects to illustrate the folk history of the Korean people. Bukchon Hanok Village and Namsangol Hanok Village are old residential districts consisting of hanok Korean traditional houses, parks, and museums that allows visitors to experience traditional Korean culture. The War Memorial, one of nine municipal museums in Seoul, offers visitors an educational and emotional experience of various wars in which Korea was involved, including Korean War themes. The Seodaemun Prison is a former prison built during the Japanese occupation, and is currently used as a history museum.
The Seoul Museum of Art and Ilmin Museum of Art have preserved the appearance of the old building that is visually unique from the neighboring tall, modern buildings. The former is operated by Seoul City Council and sits adjacent to Gyeonghuigung Palace, a Joseon dynasty royal palace. For many Korean film lovers from all over the world, the Korean Film Archive is running the Korean Film Museum and Cinematheque KOFA in its main center located in Digital Media City(DMC), Sangam-dong. The Tteok & Kitchen Utensil Museum and Kimchi Field Museum provide information regarding Korean culinary history.
South Korea is also home to Psy, the creator of legendary song "Gangnam Style"
There are also religious buildings that take important roles in Korean society and politics. The Wongudan altar was a sacrificial place where Korean rulers held heavenly rituals since the Three Kingdoms period. Since the Joseon Dynasty adopted Confucianism as its national ideology in the 14th century, the state built many Confucian shrines. The descendants of the Joseon royal family still continue to hold ceremonies to commemorate ancestors at Jongmyo. It is the oldest royal Confucian shrine preserved and the ritual ceremonies continue a tradition established in the 14th century. Munmyo and Dongmyo were built during the same period. Although Buddhism was suppressed by the Joseon state, it has continued its existence. Jogyesa is the headquarters of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism. Hwagyesa and Bongeunsa are also major Buddhist temples in Seoul.
The Myeongdong Cathedral is a landmark of the Myeongdong district and the biggest Catholic church established in Korea. It is a symbol of Christianity in Korea. It was also a focus for political dissent in the late-20th century. The Roman Catholic Church in South Korea has a very strong influence in Korean society, in fact the Korean Catholic Church has made a bid to host the World Youth Day but was not chosen at the moment.
There are many Protestant churches in Seoul. The largest number are Presbyterian, but there are also Methodist, Baptist, and Lutheran churches.
In October 2012 KBS Hall in Seoul will host major international music festivals - First ABU TV and Radio Song Festivals within frameworks of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union 49th General Assembly. Hi! Seoul Festival is a seasonal cultural festival held four times a year every spring, summer, autumn, and winter in Seoul, South Korea since 2003. It is based on the "Seoul Citizens' Day" held on every October since 1994 to commemorate the 600 years history of Seoul as the capital of the country. The festival is arranged under the Seoul Metropolitan Government.
Namsan Park offers hiking, recreation and views of the downtown Seoul skyline. The N Seoul Tower is located here. Seoul Olympic Park is located in Songpa-gu and was built to host the 1988 Summer Olympics. The Wongaksa Pagoda 10 tier pagoda is situated In Tapgol Park, a small public park with an area of 19,599 m2 (210,962 sq ft). Areas around streams serve as public places for relaxation and recreation. Tancheon stream and the nearby area serve as a large park with paths for both walkers and cyclists. Cheonggyecheon, a stream that runs nearly 6 km through downtown Seoul, is popular among both Seoul residents and tourists. The Seoul metropolitan area accommodates six major parks, including the Seoul Forest, which opened in mid-2005. The Seoul National Capital Area also contains a green belt aimed at preventing the city from sprawling out into neighboring Gyeonggi Province. These areas are frequently sought after by people looking to escape from urban life on weekends and during vacations.
Seoul is also home to the world's largest indoor amusement park, Lotte World. Other recreation centers include the former Olympic and World Cup stadiums and the City Hall public lawn.
Seoul hosted the 1986 Asian Games commonly known as Asiad, 1988 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. It also served as one of the host cities of the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Sangam Stadium hosted the opening ceremony and first game of the tournament.
Taekwondo is Korea's national sport and Seoul is the location of the Kukkiwon, the world headquarters of taekwondo, as well as the World Taekwondo Federation (-).
Domestic sports clubs
- Men's football
|Top||K-League||FC Seoul||Seoul World Cup Stadium|
|3rd||Challengers League||Seoul United||Madeul Stadium|
|Seoul FC Martyrs||Gangbuk Public Stadium|
- Women's football
|Top||WK-League||Seoul City Women's FC||To be determined|
Seoul has three professional baseball teams under the KBO: One of oldest clubs, Doosan Bears, LG Twins and Nexen Heroes.
- Seoul SK Knights and Seoul Samsung Thunders
Seoul features one of the world's most advanced transportation infrastructures that is constantly under expansion. Its system dates back to the era of the Korean Empire, when the first streetcar lines were laid and a railroad linking Seoul and Incheon was completed. Seoul's most important streetcar line ran along Jongno until it was replaced by Line 1 of the subway system in the early 1970s. Other notable streets in downtown Seoul include Euljiro, Teheranno, Sejongno, Chungmuro, Yulgongno, and Toegyero. There are nine major subway lines stretching for more than 250 kilometers, with one additional line planned.
Seoul's bus system is operated by the Seoul Metropolitan Government, with four primary bus configurations available servicing most of the city. Seoul has many large intercity/express bus terminals. These buses connect Seoul with cities throughout South Korea. The Seoul Express Bus Terminal, Central City Terminal and Seoul Nambu Terminal are located in the district of Seocho-gu. In addition, East Seoul Bus Terminal in Gwangjin-gu and Sangbong Terminal in Jungnang-gu operate in the east of the city. To reduce air pollution in the metropolitan area, the municipal government is planning to convert over seven thousand of Seoul's diesel engine buses to natural gas by 2010.
Seoul has a comprehensive subway network that interconnects every district of the city and the surrounding areas. With more than 8 million passengers per day, Seoul has one of the busiest subway systems in the world. The Seoul Metropolitan Subway has 12 lines which serve Seoul, Incheon, Gyeonggi province, western Gangwon province, and northern Chungnam province. In addition, in order to cope with the various modes of transport, Seoul's metropolitan government employs several mathematicians to coordinate the subway, bus, and traffic schedules into one timetable. The various lines are run by Korail, Seoul Metro, Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation, AREX and Metro 9
Seoul is connected to every major city in Korea by rail. Seoul is also linked to most major Korean cities by the KTX high-speed train, which has a normal operation speed of more than 300 km/h (186 mph). Major railroad stations include:
- Seoul Station, Yongsan-gu: Gyeongbu line (KTX/Saemaul/Mugunghwa-ho), Gyeongui line (Saemaul/Commuter)
- Yongsan Station, Yongsan-gu: Honam line (KTX/Saemaul/Mugunghwa), Jeolla/Janghang lines (Saemaul/Mugunghwa)
- Yeongdeungpo Station, Yeongdeungpo-gu: Gyeongbu/Honam/Janghang lines (Saemaul/Mugunghwa)
- Cheongnyangni Station, Dongdaemun-gu: Gyeongchun/Jungang/Yeongdong/Taebaek lines (Mugunghwa)
Two international airports serve Seoul. Gimpo International Airport, formerly in Gimpo but annexed to Seoul in 1963, was for many years (since its original construction during the Korean War) the only international airport serving Seoul. Other domestic airports were also built around the time of the war, including Yeouido.
When it opened in March 2001, Incheon International Airport on Yeongjong island in Incheon changed the role of Gimpo Airport significantly. Incheon is now responsible for almost all international flights and some domestic flights, while Gimpo serves only domestic flights with the exception of flights to Tokyo International Airport (Haneda) in Tokyo, Osaka Kansai International Airport, Hongqiao Airport in Shanghai, and Beijing Capital International Airport in Beijing. This has led to a significant drop in flights from Gimpo Airport.
Meanwhile, Incheon International Airport has become, along with Hong Kong, a major transportation center for East Asia.
Incheon and Gimpo are linked to Seoul by highways, and to each other by the Incheon International Airport Railroad, which is also linked to Incheon line #1. Gimpo is also linked by subway (line No. 5 and #9). The Incheon International Airport Railroad, connecting the airport directly to Seoul Station in central Seoul, was recently opened. Shuttle buses also transfer passengers between Incheon and Gimpo airports.
- See also: Education in South Korea, List of universities in Seoul
Seoul is home to the majority of South Korea's most prestigious universities, including University of Seoul, Korea University, Chung-Ang University, Dongguk University, Ewha Womans University, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Hanyang University, Hongik University, Korea National University of Arts, Korea University, Kookmin University, Konkuk University, Seoul National University, Seoul National University of Education, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Sogang University,Soongsil University, Sungkyunkwan University, Kyung Hee University, and Yonsei University.
Education from grades 1–10 are compulsory. Students spend six years in elementary school, three years in middle school, and three years in high school. Secondary schools generally require that the students wear uniforms. There is no exit exam for graduating from high school, but many students proceeding to the university level are required to take the Korean SAT exam that is held every November.
Seoul is home to various specialized high schools, including three science high schools (Hansung Science High School, Sejong Science High School and Seoul Science High School), and six foreign language high schools (Daewon Foreign Language High School, Daeil Foreign Language High School, Ewha Foreign Language High School, Hanyoung Foreign Language High School, Myungduk Foreign Language High School and Seoul Foreign Language High School). Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education comprises 235 college-preparatory high schools, 80 vocational schools, 377 middle schools, and 33 special education schools as of 2009.
- Since Seoul has no direct equivalent Hanja, the Hangul instead is used here. However the city government designated the Chinese Hanzi name as (首爾; Su-i in RR Romaja and Shǒu'ěr pinyin).
- "Seoul Statistics (Land Area)". Seoul Metropolitan Government. http://stat.seoul.go.kr/Seoul_System5.jsp?stc_cd=412. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
- Seoul official website: http://english.seoul.go.kr/gtk/about/fact.php
- "Color". http://www.seoul.go.kr/v2012/seoul/symbol/color.html.
- Thomas Brinkhoff, www.citypopulation.de; South Korea, The registered population of the South Korean provinces and urban municipalities Registered population 2007-12-31. Retrieved on
- "Current population of the Seoul National Capital Area". Statistics Korea. http://www.index.go.kr/egams/stts/jsp/potal/stts/PO_STTS_IdxMain.jsp?idx_cd=2729.
- "Lists: Republic of Korea". UNESCO. http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/kr.
- "A.T. Kearney Global Cities Index, 2012". A.T. Kearney. http://www.atkearney.com/images/global/pdf/2012_Global_Cities_Index_and_Emerging_Cities_Outlook-FINAL3.pdf. Retrieved 2012-04-02.
- "Citgy Mayors: World's best financial cities". Citymayors.com. http://www.citymayors.com/economics/financial-cities.html.
- See List of companies by revenue.
- Zumbrun, Joshua. "In Pictures: World's Most Economically Powerful Cities". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2008/07/15/economic-growth-gdp-biz-cx_jz_0715powercities_slide_7.html?thisSpeed=15000.
- "KOREA: Future is now for Korean info-tech". AsiaMedia (Regents of the University of California). 14 June 2005. http://www.asiamedia.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid=25697.
- "Tech capitals of the world – Technology". The Age (Melbourne). 18 June 2007. http://www.theage.com.au/news/technology/tech-capitals-of-the-world/2007/06/16/1181414598292.html.
- See Metro systems by annual passenger rides.
- "Seoul". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/534948/Seoul. Retrieved 6 September 2009. "The city was popularly called Seoul in Korean during both the Chosŏn (Yi) dynasty (1392–1910) and the period of Japanese rule (1910–45), although the official names in those periods were Hansŏng (Hanseong) and Kyŏngsŏng (Gyeongseong), respectively."
- "yahoo". Uk.holidaysguide.yahoo.com. http://uk.holidaysguide.yahoo.com/p-travelguide-221948-seoul_history-i.[dead link]
- "서울표기 ''首爾''로...중국, 곧 정식 사용키로 :: 네이버 뉴스" (in (Korean)). News.naver.com. 2005-10-23. http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=104&oid=022&aid=0000126138. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- "'Seoul' morphs into Chinese 'Shouer'". Chinadaily.com.cn. 2005-01-20. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-01/20/content_410881.htm. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- "goodcharacters.com". goodcharacters.com. http://goodcharacters.com/newsletters/summer2006-seoul-korea.html.
- "Summer Institute Summaries". Orias.berkeley.edu. http://orias.berkeley.edu/summer2007/Summer2007Summaries.htm. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Climate data in seoul, 1981 ~ 2010(Korean), Korea Meteorological Administration.
- "Administrative Districts". Seoul Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on 20 February 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080220203429/http://english.seoul.go.kr/gover/organ/organ_03adm.htm.
-  Seoul ranks highest in population density among OECD countries-Source-OECD report
- "Seoul Statistics (Population)". Seoul Metropolitan Government. http://stat.seoul.go.kr/Seoul_System5.jsp?stc_cd=418. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
- Park, Chung-a. "Foreign population in Seoul continue to dwindle". Korea Times. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2010/07/113_66455.html.
- "Korean Chinese account for nearly 70% of foreigners in Seoul." The Korea Times. September 11, 2011. Retrieved on September 19, 2011.
- "Welcome to KTC". Lmg.go.kr. http://www.lmg.go.kr/2006iaescsi/generalinfo/seoul.asp.
- "Global : Cities". CNN. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2008/cities/.
- Wifi in All Public Areas[dead link]
- "ABU TV and Radio Song Festivals 2012". ESCKAZ.com. http://esckaz.com/2012/abu.htm. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "ABU GA Seoul 2012". Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union. http://www.abu2012seoul.com/. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Seoul More Enjoyable For a Day". Retrieved 30 July 2008.