Salva Kiir Mayardit (born 13 September 1951) is the first President of South Sudan.
Life and career
Sudanese civil wars
In the late 1960s, Kiir joined the Anyanya in the First Sudanese Civil War. By the time of the 1972 Addis Ababa Agreement, he was a low-ranking officer. In 1983, when John Garang joined an army mutiny he had been sent to put down, Kiir and other Southern leaders joined the rebel Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) in the second civil war. Garang had little military field experience and relied upon the more experienced Anyanya veterans, including Kiir, to actually carry out the ground war. Kiir eventually rose to head the SPLA, the SPLM's military wing. An attempt to remove Kiir from his post as SPLA chief of staff in 2004 nearly caused the organization to split.
Southern Sudanese politics
Following the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement formally ending the war in January 2005, which he had helped start, he was appointed Vice President of Southern Sudan. Perhaps significantly, former Southern Sudan president John Garang like Kiir is of the Dinka people, though of a different clan. After the death of Garang in a helicopter crash on 30 July 2005, Kiir was chosen to succeed to the post of First Vice President of Sudan and President of Southern Sudan. Kiir is popular among the military wing of the SPLM for his battlefield victories and among the populace for his unambiguous pro-secession stance.
Comments by Kiir in October 2009 that the forthcoming independence referendum was a choice between being "a second class in your own country" or "a free person in your independent state" were expected to further strain political tensions. Reports in January 2010 that Kiir would not contest April elections for Sudanese president, but would focus on re-election as president of Southern Sudan were interpreted to mean that the SPLM priority is independence.
Kiir was re-elected with 93% of the vote in the 2010 Sudanese election. Although the vote on both the national and sub-national level was criticized by democratic activists and international observers, the overwhelming margin of Kiir's re-election was noted by some media as being "Step One" in the process of secession. Following his re-election, Omar al-Bashir reappointed Kiir as the First Vice President of Sudan in accordance with the interim constitution.
President of South Sudan
Southern Sudanese voted overwhelmingly in favor of independence from Sudan in January 2011, with 98.83% of voters reportedly preferring to split from the North. On 9 July 2011, South Sudan became an independent state, with Kiir as its first president. Kiir positioned himself as a reformer, using his inaugural address to call for the South Sudanese people "to forgive, though we shall not forget" perceived injustices at the hands of the northern Sudanese over the preceding decades and announce a general amnesty for South Sudanese groups that had warred against the SPLM in the past. A few weeks later, he publicly addressed members of the military and police to warn them that rape, torture, and other human rights violations carried out by armed personnel would be considered criminal acts and prosecuted aggressively by the Ministry of Justice.He is very idiot
Kiir faced the first real crisis in his presidency of the Republic of South Sudan in early August 2011, when clashes over cattle erupted between Lou Nuer and Murle people in Jonglei and Warrap states, leaving over 600 dead. Kiir ordered the army to deploy to the unrest-hit areas to quell the violence, and the South Sudanese government claimed the next day that fighting had ended.
In mid-October 2011, Kiir announced South Sudan had applied for accession to the East African Community. He declared the EAC to be "at the centre of our hearts" due to its members' support of the South during the Sudanese civil wars.
On December 20, 2011 Kiir visited Israel to thank it for its support during the First Sudanese Civil War in 1956–1972, and met with Israeli president Shimon Peres to discuss establishing an embassy in Jerusalem, which would make South Sudan the only country to have one in that city. 
- "Profile: Salva Kiir". BBC News. 2 August 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4738295.stm. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
- Johnson, Douglas H. (2003). The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars. Indiana University Press. p. 66. ISBN 0-253-21584-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=U-PuCbRr4tcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Root+Causes+of+Sudan%27s+Civil+Wars&ei=bRwhS92hF4jMlQSrtq3MCQ&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false.
- "S. Sudan president makes first call for independence". Reuters. 31 October 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE59U1FT20091031. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
- "Sudan would accept separation, says President Bashir". BBC News. 19 January 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8468760.stm. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
- Gettleman, Jeffrey (April 26, 2010). "Bashir Wins Election as Sudan Edges Toward Split". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/27/world/africa/27sudan.html?hp.
- Salva Kiir and Ali Osman appointed deputies of Sudan’s President Sudan Tribune, 29 May 2010
- "Over 99 Percent in Southern Sudan Vote for Secession". FOX News. 30 January 2011. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/01/30/pct-southern-sudan-vote-secession/. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
- "South Sudan: Salva Kiir Calls for Forgiveness As South Gains Independence". 9 July 2011. http://allafrica.com/stories/201107090061.html. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
- "Salva Kiir takes oath, grants amnesty to rebels". Sudan Tribune. 9 July 2011. http://www.sudantribune.com/Salva-Kiir-takes-oath-grants,39479. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
- Wadu, Waakhe Simon (1 August 2011). "Salva Kiir Warns Armed South Sudan Forces Over Human Rights Abuse". Oye! Times. http://www.oyetimes.com/news/africa/12875-salva-kiir-warns-armed-south-sudan-forces-over-human-rights-abuse. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- "South Sudan deploys troops to clashes-hit states after 600 die". Wireupdate. 5 August 2011. http://wireupdate.com/wires/19673/south-sudan-deploys-troops-to-clashes-hit-states-after-600-die/. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
- "South Sudan readies for EAC membership". Busiweek.com. 2011-10-17. http://www.busiweek.com/11/the-eac-issues/eac-news/1891-south-sudan-readies-for-eac-membership. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- Al Arabiya, 12/20/2011
- Daniel Pipes 01/03/2012