Rafael Correa

Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado, M.

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Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado (born 6 April 1963),[1] M.A., M.Sc., Ph.D. [2] is the President of the Republic of Ecuador and the former president pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations. An economist educated in Ecuador, Belgium and the United States, he was elected President in late 2006 and took office in January 2007. In December 2008, he declared Ecuador's national debt illegitimate, based on the argument that it was odious debt contracted by corrupt and despotic prior regimes. He announced that the country would default on over $3 billion worth of bonds; he then pledged to fight creditors in international courts and succeeded in reducing the price of outstanding bonds by more than 60%.[3] He brought Ecuador into the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas in June 2009. To date, Correa’s administration has succeeded in reducing the high levels of poverty, indigence, and unemployment in Ecuador.[4][5][6][7]

Correa's first term in office had been due to end on 15 January 2011, but the new approved constitution written by the new National Assembly mandated general elections for 26 April 2009. In that election, Rafael Correa won in the first round with 51.9%[8] of votes counted. It was the first time since 1979 in which a representative was elected without having to face a second round. Consequently, Correa began a new term in office due to end on 24 May 2013, which could be extended by reelection until 2017.[5][6][9]

Correa's policies towards the media have been controversial. These have included lawsuits against journalists and media directors, government expropriation of private media outlets and promotion of new government-owned media. Critics charge Correa with running a campaign against the independence of the media.[10][11][12] Among other actions, Correa brought a libel case against the newspaper El Universo and won damages of $40 million, confirmed by the National Court of Justice (Ecuador's highest court) as of 16 February 2012. The court also confirmed three-year prison sentences against a journalist and three executives of the newspaper.[13] Correa announced on 27 February 2012 that he would pardon the four individuals involved. He also waived the damages. Correa said he would drop a separate case against two other journalists who produced a book which claimed to expose government contracts given to Correa's brother.[14] In September 2012 an independent survey found that he has 80% of approval rate among Ecuadorians, significantly the highest rate in the Americas.[15]


Early life

A descendant of the Chilean politician Rafael Correa de Saa y Lazón, Rafael Correa comes from a working-class family who used to live in Guayaquil. His father was Rafael Correa Icaza, born in the Province of Los Ríos, Ecuador, 23 March 1934 and deceased 10 June 1995; and his mother is Norma Delgado Rendón, born 1 September 1939.[16] His parents had three more children: Fabricio Correa, Pierina Correa; Bernardita Correa(+).

When Rafael Correa was 25 years old, his father was caught smuggling drugs (cocaine) into the U.S. and was convicted and sentenced to 5 and half years in prison for his crime.[17] Rafael had a troubled and difficult childhood – the family struggled to make ends meet[citation needed].[18] Correa has publicly acknowledged this incident, he said: "I do not justify what he did (but) drug smugglers are not delinquents. They are single mothers or unemployed people who are desperate to feed their families". His antipathy towards the US government is believed to be in part due to this sad event in Correa's life.[19]

He is married to Anne Malherbe, a teacher of Belgian nationality born in 1969, whom he met in 1990 at the Catholic University of Louvain. The couple have three children: Sofía, Anne Dominique and Miguel.[20]

He carried out his primary and secondary studies San José-La Salle in Guayaquil.[21] During his youth he was part and directed groups of Scouts of the Association of Scouts of Ecuador, as well as a troop of the Group 14 San José-La Salle, and afterwards, Group 17 Christopher Columbus that also helped to create.[21]

During his secondary studies he was President of the Lasallian Student Cultural Association ("ACEL" in Spanish). Afterwards and based on his academic achievements, he obtained a scholarship to study at the Catholic University of Santiago de Guayaquil (UCSG in Spanish), a private higher education institution in Guayaquil, Ecuador, where he obtained an undergraduate degree in economics in 1987.[22]

When attending UCSG, he was elected President of the Association of Students of Economy, Audit and Administration (AEAA) and, later on, President of the Federation of Students (FEUC) of the same education center, a position which in 1986 allowed him to preside over the Private Universities Students Federation of Ecuador (FEUPE in Spanish).[22]


Following the conclusion of his studies at UCSG, he worked for one year in a mission at a kindergarten run by the Salesian order in Zumbahua, Cotopaxi Province, where Correa provided support to increase literacy of the indigenous population, as well as support for microenterprise development. During his work at Zumbabua he acquired a basic knowledge of Quichua, which is spoken by the majority of the indigenous population living in the Ecuadorean Andes.[23] In addition to Spanish and Quichua, he speaks French and English.[24]

In 1993 he was a director at the Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC) in Ecuador, with administrative oversight supervising improvement programs of the national educational system. The improvement programs were funded by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).

Regarding his education, in June 1991, he received a Master of Arts in Economics from the Université Catholique de Louvain in Belgium. He later studied at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he earned a Master of Science in Economics in May 1999, and a PhD in Economics in October 2001. According to The Washington Post, Correa's adviser at the University of Illinois, Werner Baer, supports his former student. "He appreciates the market to a certain point, but he knows that the market left alone concentrates wealth", he said. "He is not going to do anything foolish... because he is a fairly open-minded person."[25][dead link]

In his doctoral dissertation, titled "Three Essays on Contemporaneous Latin American Development", Correa affirmed essentially that the structural reforms instituted in Latin America beginning in the 1980s, failed as driver for growth in the region. By means of econometric analysis, Correa argued that the reforms did not spur growth and also that the liberalization of the labor markets reduced the productivity of Latin American countries.[26]

Minister of Finance 2005

In 2005, Correa served as economy and finance minister under Alfredo Palacio. During his four months in office, he advocated poverty reduction and economic sovereignty. Correa was skeptical of a free-trade deal with the United States, did not take advice from the International Monetary Fund, and worked to increase Ecuador's cooperation with other Latin American countries. After the World Bank withheld a loan (citing changes to the oil income stabilization fund), Correa resigned from Palacio's government. Correa had also proposed the issuance of government bonds at a lower interest rate than the 8.5% prevailing one at that time one. Venezuela's government was to purchase half of the new bond issue. Correa claimed in his resignation letter that the sale was done with full presidential authorization, but cited lack of support from the president as a factor in his decision to resign.[27]

When Correa resigned as minister, polls showed he had the highest credibility of any official in the administration at the time, with 57% of Ecuadorians saying that they trusted him.[28]

2006 Presidential campaign


At the start of 2006 Presidential campaign, Rafael Correa founded the Alianza PAIS—Patria Altiva y Soberana ("Proud and Sovereign Fatherland Alliance"). The movement espouses political sovereignty, regional integration, and economic relief for Ecuador's poor. Correa, an actively observant Roman Catholic, describes himself as a humanist, a Christian leftist, and a proponent of 21st century socialism.[29]

During the campaign, Correa proposed a constituent assembly to rewrite Ecuador's constitution.[30] Alianza PAIS did not run any congressional candidates, as Correa had stated that he would call for a referendum to begin drafting a new constitution. However, the Alianza PAIS movement signed a political alliance with the Ecuadorian Socialist Party, which did present candidates for Congress.[31] On July 31, 2006, Alliance PAIS also signed a Programmatic Political Agreement with the Communist Party of Ecuador when Correa was postulated for candidate for president.[32]

Other parties that united to Alliance PAIS in the second electoral turn other parties as: Democratic People's Movement,[33] Democratic Left,[34] Pachakutik,[35] and the Partido Roldista Ecuatoriano.[36]

Petroleum policy

On economic policy, Correa called for reform of the petroleum industry, including an increase in the percentage of petroleum revenues spent on social programs for the Ecuadorian poor, following the reforms of the Hydrocarbons Law promoted by former Economy and Finance Minister Diego Borja. He accused foreign petroleum companies operating in Ecuador of failing to meet existing environmental and investment regulations. In an interview, Correa stated:

Many of the oil contracts are a true entrapment for the country. Of every five barrels of oil that the multinationals produce, they leave only one for the state and take four... That is absolutely unacceptable. We're going to revise and renegotiate the contracts."[37]

Finances and debts

He advocated reform of the financial sector, including limiting offshore deposits by local banks to no more than 10% of their holdings.

Correa also proposed strategies for reducing the burden of Ecuador's foreign debt service through compulsory debt restructuring. He indicated that his top priority would be spending on social programs rather than servicing Ecuador's debt.[38]

Correa criticized the neoliberal policies of Jamil Mahuad to adopt the US dollar as the country's official currency while later acknowledging that it would not now be feasible to abandon that policy.

Commerce and foreign policies

Correa also criticized Ecuador's draft free trade agreement as currently negotiated with the US,[39] although he does advocate expanding trade and opening markets with other countries, urging in particular the integration of South American economies.[40]

On foreign policy, Correa commented on Ecuador's relations with its neighbor Colombia. Correa stressed Ecuador's interest in staying uninvolved in internal conflict in Colombia.[41] In October 2006, Correa added that he would "pursue and capture" FARC members if they enter Ecuador. He also declared that he condemns their kidnappings, violations of human rights and bombings.[42] Later, during his presidency National Police of Colombia accused Correa of having ties to the FARC. Correa denied the accusations. See section Presidency.

In August 2006, Correa told the Ecuadorian press that he is not part of the Venezuelan Bolivarian movement, although he considers Hugo Chávez a personal friend.

In response to Chávez's comparison of George W. Bush with Satan, Correa said it was unfair to the devil.[43]

Indigenous votes

In addition to his platform on economic and social policy, Correa's ability to communicate with a large majority of Ecuador's indigenous population in their own language also differentiated him from other candidates. He learned Quichua in his youth during a year he spent volunteering in a remote highland town.[44] However, in the 15 October election, a large percentage of the votes in areas with high concentration of indigenous people went to candidate Gilmar Gutiérrez, brother of Lucio Gutiérrez, although Correa generally ran second in these areas.[45]


In the 15 October 2006 general election Correa obtained second place (22.84%) behind banana tycoon Álvaro Noboa (26.83%). Correa won the subsequent 26 November 2006 runoff election with 56.67% of the vote.[46] He took office on 15 January 2007.

Presidency 2007–2009

Rafael Correa during his inaugural speech as president of Ecuador

Rafael Correa was officially declared President of Ecuador on 4 December 2006 by the country's electoral court. He was sworn in on 15 January 2007 as the 56th president of Ecuador, the seventh to occupy the post since the legislature removed president Abdalá Bucaram 10 years earlier in the midst of a debt crisis that devastated the country. His inauguration was attended by most regional leaders, as well as the Iranian president and Spanish Crown Prince.[47]

Correa promised to get rid of the traditionally corrupt political class.[48][49][50]

Economic policy

Socialism will continue. The Ecuadorian people voted for that. We are going to emphasize this fight for social justice, for regional justice. We are going to continue the fight to eliminate all forms of workplace exploitation within our socialist conviction: the supremacy of human work over capital. Nobody is in any doubt that our preferential option is for the poorest people, we are here because of them. Hasta la victoria siempre! (Until victory, for ever) — Rafael Correa, April 30, 2009[51]

Correa's administration has suggested that the new government will not sign an agreement allowing the International Monetary Fund to monitor its economic plan. In February 2007, Correa's economy minister Ricardo Patiño stated: "I have no intention ... of accepting what some governments in the past have accepted: that (the IMF) tell us what to do on economic policy." "That seems unacceptable to us," Patiño added. However, as a member of the IMF, the annual report known as the "Article IV" report will be undertaken.[52]

Market manipulation

In May 2007, evidence surfaced that some of the Ecuadorian government rhetoric might have been part of an alleged market manipulation to benefit Ecuador from movements in the price of financial instruments linked to Ecuadorian Bonds.[53] A fall in Ecuador bond prices, ignited by aggressive default rhetoric, would trigger a buyback by Ecuador, financed by Venezuelan banks. This strategy collapsed due to operations engaged by Venezuelan financial institutions who profited from the market swings. Correa referred to the allegations as a conspiracy from a powerful banker.[54][55][56] On 26 July 2007, Rafael Correa replaced finance minister Patiño, due to Patiño's appearance in a video recording, apparently discussing the market manipulation. Patiño then assumed a newly created position responsible for the Pacific coast region and later assumed the Politics Affairs Ministry.[57] In a radio address on 13 December, Correa said that he wanted to force a “big discount” on creditors, whom a day earlier he called “true monsters who won’t hesitate to crush the country”.[58] "I have lost sleep over this ... this will cost us tears and sweat but I think we are doing the right thing."[59] Correa, who endorses anti-debt NGO Jubilee 2000's slogan "life before debt", is popular among Ecuadorians for his stance against foreign investors.[59]


Correa has criticised the neoliberal policies of previous presidents, particularly former president Mahuad's adoption of the U.S. dollar as Ecuador's domestic currency in 2000. Correa has characterized dollarization as a "technical error" which has effectively eliminated Ecuador's ability to set its own monetary and exchange policy. However, Correa has also acknowledged that it would be politically impossible to abandon that policy now. After his election victory of 15 April 2007, he pledged to maintain dollarization during the four years of his administration, though he also indicated his support for the idea of replacing the dollar with a regional South American currency at some point in the future.[60]

Bond repurchase

On 16 April 2009, Finance Minister Maria Elsa Viteri embarked on a trip to Europe in a mission to present Ecuador's offer to buy back global bonds 2012 and 2030 at 30% of their current value. In May 2009, Ecuador announced that it had successfully bought 91% of the bonds at a cost of 35 cents on the dollar.[61]

Concessions of mobile telephony

In May of the 2008, under direct administration of Rafael Correa, it was possible to re-negotiate the concessions of radio spectrum of cellular operators Porta and Movistar for a total amount of 700 million dollars, a higher sum than the established one on studies carried out in previous governments, in which it was recommended to give the same concessions for 70 million dollars.[62]

Foreign policy

Presidents of South American countries meet in Rio de Janeiro. From left to right: Rafael Correa (Ecuador), Evo Morales (Bolivia), Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (Brazil), Michelle Bachelet (Chile), Hugo Chávez (Venezuela) and Nicanor Duarte (Paraguay)

Rafael Correa with Dmitry Medvedev

During Rafael Correa's tenure as presidency he took some radical alternative steps to change the course of Ecuador's relations with the rest of the world. Amongst these were economic moves to correct Ecuador's debt imbalance, a distancing from the United States, a rift with its northern neighbour Colombia, and a strengthening of ties with ALBA (including Venezuela and Bolivia), as well as Iran.

Tension with Colombia

On 1 March 2008 at 00:25 local time (05:25 UTC), Colombia launched a military operation, 1.8 kilometers (1.1 mi) into Ecuador.[63][64][65] According to Colombian authorities, the guerrillas responded militarily to this initial bombardment from a position in the vicinity of Santa Rosa de Yanamaru, on the Ecuadorian side of the border, killing a Colombian soldier, Carlos Hernández. A second bombardment was then carried out, resulting in the deaths of Raúl Reyes and at least 20 more FARC members.[66] Two bodies, several documents and three laptops found in the guerrilla camp were returned to Colombia.[63][65] This was the first time the Colombian military had killed a member of FARC's leadership council in combat.[67] After this operation, the Colombian authorities increased its security measures nationwide, fearing FARC retaliation.[68]

According to the Ecuadorian government, the attack happened 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) inside its own territory, lacked its permission and was a planned strike, intended to be followed by the incursion of Colombian troops by helicopter. It pointed out that the attack had left a total of more than 20 people dead in Ecuadorian territory, many of whom were found to be wearing underwear or sleeping clothes.[69][70] The government of Ecuador concluded that the attack was a "massacre" and not the result of combat or "hot pursuit". Ecuadorian president Rafael Correa had reason to believe that the Colombian warplanes had penetrated 10 km into Ecuador's territory and struck the guerrilla camp while flying north, followed by troops in helicopters who had completed the killings. He claimed that some of the bodies had been found to be shot from behind.[70]

The Ecuadorian authorities found three wounded women in the camp, including a Mexican student who was identified as Lucía Andrea Morett Álvarez.[71][72] Lucía Morett claimed that she was visiting the guerrilla group as part of an academic investigation, refusing to answer other questions about the circumstances surrounding her presence there.[73] Regarding the attack on the camp, she has stated: "I was asleep when we received a first aerial attack. Two or three hours later we were attacked again".[73] Ecuador said that it was cooperating with Mexico to investigate whether any Mexicans had been killed during the raid.[74] According to the director of the Ecuadorian military hospital which treated the three women, they had received some sort of medical attention from both the attacking Colombian forces and the Ecuadorian soldiers who later found them.[75]

President Uribe of Colombia spoke by telephone with his Ecuadorian counterpart, Rafael Correa, early on the morning of the raid, to inform him of the incident.[76] In a press conference that evening, Correa denounced the attack as "aggression" against Ecuador, calling it a "massacre," and claiming that the rebels had been killed in their sleep using "advanced technology". He announced that he was summoning his ambassador in Colombia for consultations.[76] On Sunday, 2 March, Correa said that a diplomatic note would be sent in protest at the incursion,[77] claiming that the action had been a violation of Ecuador's airspace.[78] Ecuador formally recalled its ambassador from Colombia and expelled the Colombian ambassador from Quito.[76]

Correa withdrew his government's ambassador in Bogotá, Colombia, and ordered troops to the country's border following the 2008 Andean diplomatic crisis in early March 2008.[79] On 3 March 2008, Colombia's police said that documents found in a camp in Ecuador where Colombian troops killed Raul Reyes, a top guerrilla boss, showed ties between the FARC rebels and Correa, including contacts about political proposals and local military commanders.[80] Correa denied the accusations, calling them lies.[81] Correa also said that a deal to release political prisoners – including former Colombian Sen. Ingrid Betancourt – was nearly complete before the 1 March 2008 Colombian raid into his country.[82] On 5 March 2008, Correa and Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez met to discuss Colombia's attack and made a series of accusations against Colombia's government.[83] During the meeting, Correa dismissed Colombia's president Álvaro Uribe as just a "puppet" while others are the "puppet masters".[84] On 18 May 2011, Colombia's Supreme Court ruled documents found on computers of slain FARC commander "Raul Reyes" are inadmissible as evidence in court as the material is illegally obtained and provides no evidence.[85]

At a Rio Group summit held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, on 7 March 2008, after a heated exchange of accusations between Correa and Uribe, the diplomatic crisis was temporarily resolved with Colombia's apologies for the attack and reassurances that it won't be repeated. Correa said that with this resolution Latin America was starting a new era where international principles of justice will have preeminence over power.[86]

Relations with United States

Correa did not renew United States Southern Command's lease of Eloy Alfaro Air Base in Manta, ending U.S. occupancy of this military base in September 2009.[87]

Relations with Venezuela

Presidents Fernando Lugo of Paraguay, Evo Morales of Bolívia, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brasil, Rafael Correa of Ecuador, and Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, in Fórum Social Mundial for Latin America

In June 2009, Correa joined the Chávez-backed Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (ALBA), together with Cuba, Nicaragua, Bolivia and other countries. Correa considers Chávez a personal friend and also has said that "there is really no one that is a more admiring Hugo Chávez fan than me. I am the hugest fan personally and professionally, I think he is a great politician."[88]

2008 Constitution

Conflicts with Congress

In February 2007, Correa's plan to have a referendum on the convening of a constituent assembly was approved by Congress. The referendum took place on 15 April 2007. However, after this date was set, the "statutes" for the referendum were modified by Correa to allow more powers to the constituent assembly.,[89][90] One of these powers was the ability to dismiss Congress, a power which Congress never approved. The newer version of the referendum was approved by the majority of the seven-seat Electoral Tribunal. In early March, Congress, which was controlled by Correa's opposition, reacted by trying to impeach the President of the electoral tribunal.[91] The electoral tribunal then removed from office the 57 members of Congress who tried to impeach the President of the Electoral Tribunal, on the grounds of attempting to intervene an electoral process. Correa backed the electoral tribunal (which approved his version of the referendum) while stating that the removal of the 57 congressmen was constitutional. The situation escalated to a feud between the opposition in Congress and the Executive and marches in the street against Congress and police intervention to prevent the Congressmen from entering the legislative building.[92][93]

On 22 March 21 alternate deputies were sworn in, allowing the Congress to regain quorum, and on 23 and 24 March a further 20 deputies were sworn in. The new majority (formed by 28 alternate deputies and 31 deputies from parties that support the referendum and Assembly) pledged to support the referendum on the Constitutional Assembly.[94] On 23 April, the Constitutional Tribunal decided to try to reinstate 51 of the 57 Congressmen who had been fired by the Electoral Tribunal. The Constitutional Tribunal claimed that it was illegal to remove them in the first place, and approved a petition by the 51 requesting their reinstatement.[95] But before the congressmen had the chance to reenter Congress, Congress voted to fire all nine judges of the Constitutional Tribunal for their "unconstitutional actions".[96]

Constituent referendum

On 15 April 2007, Ecuadorians voted overwhelmingly (81.72% in favor) to support the election of a constituent assembly.[97]

Assembly election

On 30 September 2007, due to the extraordinarly large number of candidates and lists (26 national lists, 428 provincial lists, 44 emigrant lists) the Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly election, 2007 was the most complex in Ecuador's history.[98] As a result in the national election, President Correa won backing for his plans to rewrite Ecuador's constitution and expand state control of the nation's economy. Correa's faction won approximately 61% of the seats in the National Assembly (80 of 130 Assembly Members).[99]

Constituent Assembly

The Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly first convened on 29 November 2007 in Montecristi, and was given six months to write a new constitution, with a possible two-month extension. In June 2008, the president of the CA, Alberto Acosta, resigned due to his opposition to speeding up the debate on the remaining articles to meet the deadline of 26 July 2008. He was replaced by Fernando Cordero Cueva on 24 June 2008.[100] When Ecuador began the process of writing a new constitution, they received help from the Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund to draft environmental laws giving nature and ecosystems rights.[101] [102][103][104]

In late July, 2008, the assembly approved a draft constitution with 494 articles.[105]

Constitutional referendum

A constitutional referendum was held in Ecuador on 28 September 2008 to ratify or reject the constitution drafted by the Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly elected in 2007.[106] Partial results show that 64% of voters voted to approve the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador.[107]

Relationship with the media

Correa, paraphrasing Tony Blair, stated that the Ecuadorian press acted as "a group of wild beasts". He has also regularly criticized it as "...mediocre, incompetent, inaccurate, lying and is a part of the structure of corruption and accomplice of the national disaster."[108][109][110]

The President steps into a helicopter

Correa has criticized several newspapers as El Universo, El Comercio, Diario Hoy, Diario Expreso, La Hora, it qualified them of "informative mafias", for their criticism the decision of the TSE[disambiguation needed] that deprived 57 legislators of the opposition. Correa argued that the press has remained silent before the holdups that have happened in government enterprises like Pacifictel, and the Corporation Ecuadorian Aduanera (CAE).[111][112][113]

On 19 May, during the Enlace Ciudadano called by Correa to talk about freedom of speech, he ordered that security eject the opinion editor of the Guayaquil-based El Universo newspaper, whom he had invited to the event after ten minutes of dialogue. Correa ordered him to be ejected after a tense exchange where Correa warned the journalist not to mention his family.[114]

Correa declared that he would not hesitate to revoke the license of "coup instigating" media stations following the example of Hugo Chávez when he took RCTV off the air.[115]

Lawsuit against the La Hora newspaper

On 10 May 2007, Correa filed a lawsuit against Francisco Vivanco Riofrío of the board of directors of the Quito-based La Hora newspaper, over an editorial published in the paper on 9 March. The editorial, titled “Official Vandalism,” said that Correa intended to rule Ecuador “with turmoil, rocks and sticks”. It described the president’s behavior as “shameful.”[116]

Correa's suit is based on Article 230 of the country’s penal code that sets prison penalties of up to two years for contempt, expressed in “threats or libel that would offend the president.”[117]

Francisco Vivanco Riofrío has declared that he will not apologize for the editorial and that he is prepared to face the lawsuit. He has also declared that "that editorial reflects our thoughts and we will defend not only our right to manifest our opinions but also the opinions of all citizens, as we have done during the 25 years of our newspaper's existence.”[118]

Reactions to the lawsuit

In connection with Correa's complaint against La Hora, the Ecuadorian Association of Newspaper Publishers (AEDEP), has shown its support for that newspaper and declared that "no contemporary Ecuadorian politician has employed such legal figure (contempt) as an instrument to frighten the press."[119] Counter media has pointed that Politicians, Leon Febres Cordero, and Jaime Nebot suppressed numerous medias in the 90's, however this was never denounced by El Universo, as an act against freedom of speech.

The Inter American Press Association (IAPA) has declared that it is "a clumsy step on the part of the Ecuadorean president to file a criminal charge against a news outlet, accusing it of contempt, an archaic concept in a modern democracy and outmoded in Latin America and which should be eliminated from penal codes, as the IAPA has been insisting."[11] The Committee to Protect Journalists has also protested against the lawsuit: “Fear of criminal penalties will inhibit the Ecuadoran press in reporting and commenting on issues of public interest. We call on President Correa to drop the libel suit against Vivanco and repeal defamation laws that contradict international standards on freedom of expression.”[120] The World Press Freedom Committee has declared that "it is clear that this attempt to silence the Ecuadorian press goes against very basic freedom of the press tenets, as consecrated in at least two of the most important international human right charts."[12]

Expropriation of Gamavision and TC television channels

Correa has constantly denounced what he views as the political activism of the major Ecuadorian television channels. He has also denounced the fact that they are owned by business groups who own banks related to the financial crisis of 1999, where millions of state dollars were given to rescue them while these left thousands of people without their life savings. In mid 2008, the Correa government expropriated Gamavision and TC television channels along with another hundred firms, because they were property of the Isaias. This group owned Filanbanco, a bank involved in the crisis of 1999. Currently these channels are owned by the state and have been defined as assets before calling an auction to sell them. Correa hopes that the stations' own workers gather together to buy each channel.[citation needed]

Public Media

Correa decided to create Ecuador TV, the first state-owned channel in the country, with the announced intention of producing television with better quality standards than the private channels. Also newspaper El Telegrafo became state owned). They were also created: Radio Pública, El Ciudadano, ANDES and PP,which are administered by state instances.[121][122]

Environmental conservation

The President has affirmed that his is a "green" Government for its defense of the environment."[123] In this line, he has decided to return to the Commission International Whaler to impede the reboot in the hunt of these mammals;[124] it has established a prohibition to the extraction of beautiful wood;[125] and he has announced that for a compensation of 350 millions of annual dollars of the international community it would give up the exploitation of an oil field with around 1000 million barrels, one of their biggest reservations of petroleum,[126][127] located in a reservation of the well-known biosphere as the National Park Yasuní,[128] in the Amazon Basin. The proposal hopes to collect contributions starting from 2010.

Correa announced that it will allow the export of shark fins, in case the sharks are captured accidentally. Several organizations environmentalists, as a sector of Ecological Action, Black Shepherd and Global Activism criticized this decision strongly.

Yasuní-ITT Initiative

Yasuní-ITT Initiative, The aim of the initiative is to provide a creative solution for the threat posed by the extraction of crude oil in the Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha (ITT) oil fields, which are located in the highly vulnerable area of Yasuní National Park. The proposal would contribute to preserving biodiversity, reducing carbon dioxide emissions, and respecting the rights of indigenous peoples and their way of life.[citation needed]

President Correa has stated that Ecuador’s first option is to maintain the crude oil in the subsoil. The national and international communities would be called on to help the government implement this costly decision for the country. The government hopes to recover 50% of the revenues it would obtain by extracting the oil. The procedure involves the issuing of government bonds for the crude oil that will remain “in situ,” with the double commitment of never extracting this oil and of protecting Yasuní National Park. If Ecuador succeeds in receiving the hoped for-amount – estimated at 350 million dollars annually – it would only be for a period of ten years beginning after the sixth year, since production, and thus potential revenues, would progressively decline after those ten years.[citation needed]

A more promising alternative[original research?][not in citation given] would be a strategy to provide the government with the 50% of resources in such a way as to provide a consistent income for an indefinite period of time. This resource would be channeled towards activities that help to free the country from its dependency on exports and imports and to consolidate food sovereignty.[129]

Sea conservation

Correa overturned a ban on the sale of shark fins, which are popular in Asia, but stipulated that the fins can only be sold if the sharks are caught accidentally and by artisan fishermen. He did not say how authorities would determine whether the shark had been caught accidentally or deliberately.[130]

On 3 August 2007, Correa ordered the deportation of Sean O'Hearn-Gimenez, director of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, saying that he would not allow "gringuitos" (literally, "little gringos") to tell Ecuadorians what to do or to pursue local fishermen. However, a local newspaper noted that O'Hearn-Gimenez had signed a 5-year agreement with Ecuador's own Environmental Police rather than acting unilaterally (as a foreigner with no authority of his own), and was married to an Ecuadorian.[131] The deportation was ordered because Sea Shepherd, in partnership with the Ecuadorian National Environmental Police, exposed and stopped the biggest shark-fin shipment in the port city of Manta.[132] Correa later rescinded the extradition order because O'Hearn-Gimenez was married to an Ecuadorian woman. All the arrested fishermen were released, too, and the confiscated shark fins returned to them.[133]

Other policies

Reformations of Ministries

Correa's administration began 15 January 2007 with the execution through its first two ordinances of two of its campaign proposals: the convocation of a popular consultation so that the citizenship decided if wanted a Constituent National Assembly, and the reduction halfway the wages of the high positions of the Estado,19 beginning with the retribution of the own President that was diminished to 4.250 monthly dollars (25 minimum living wages). At the moment officials of the judicature wages have been awarded for on the 5.000 dollars.

The President also looked for the gender balance and its Executive had to the beginning of his administration 40% of the wallets occupied by women. Likewise, it prohibited their minister and other public employees to receive gifts and agasajos20 for their work. Nevertheless, the candidates of the Alianza PAIS to the Constituent Assembly have participated in official events, such as the inauguration of the hydroelectric power station San Francisco (Alberto Acosta), and the beginning of the construction of the headquarters for the Constituent Assembly (Trajano Andrade), both when they carried out the positions of Secretaries of Energy, Transport and Public Works respectively, previous to the convocation to elections.[134]

Social investment

According to the Office of Press of the Presidency, the Government's realizations in the first weeks of activity were the increment in a 15%44 of the social investment of the State,[135] the committed duplication of the Voucher of Human Development,[136] dedicated to helping families with less economic resources and in situation of poverty; as well as an increment of 100% in the voucher of housing to facilitate the construction,[137] buying and rehabilitation for housing the financially disadvantaged. The Government has also begun to distribute medications free of charge.[138]

Energy politics

Their government has put special emphasis in developing the energy system. During their period, the construction of the Hydroelectric of Mazar culminated that takes advantage of the flow of the river it Averages that you dilute up it is used in it dams it well known as Amaluza. it was also awarded the construction of the project Coca Codo Sinclair, the most ambitious hydroelectric project in the history of the Ecuador. Is also projected the construction of it dams it of the rivers Toachi and Pilatón. During November 2009, Ecuador should ration energy, in view of a deficit that was overcome after the installation of thermal generators. Is projected the growth of the capacity of generation of the Ecuador, country that he/she will stop to depend on the energy that Colombia or Peru consent to sell him.

States of Emergency

Correa declared in emergency situation and it dedicated extraordinary economic resources to diverse sectors, among them the justice system[139] – that suffers from overcrowding, with 16,000 prisoners when its real capacity is only 8,000 -; for the counties affected by the eruption of the volcano Tungurahua;[140] for the Police Nacional;[141] for the educación;[141] for the system of health pública;[142] for the sector ferroviario;[143] for the reconstruction vial;[144] for the agricultura;[145] and to stop the environmental deterioration of the archipelago of Galápagos;[146] among others.Correa ordered him not to be used companies of labor intermediation that exploit the workers.[147]

Security and defense

One of the most serious problems that Correa's Government has faced has been the inability to lower the criminal indexes significantly. To this end, the police were equipped with weapons, and a weapons control plan was instituted.[148]

In June and July 2007 in several communities of the Amazonía and domestic South, protests were carried out against oil and mining concessions to transnational companies (PetroChina, PetroBras and mining Canadian). According to some media, the Government repressed abusing from the force to these mobilizations.[149]

Correa proposed the Plan Ecuador, which according to him emphasizes development, justice and peace to the militarism proposed by the Plan Colombia, financed by the United States.[150]

Presidency 2009–present

Rafael Correa was re-elected for a second term in general election in 26 April 2009. It was the first time in thirty years that the country had re-elected a president and the first elected president from Guayaquil (The coast) who could finished his term after Leon Febres Cordero (1984 - 1986).[151] He won by a large margin over the other seven candidates, taking 52 per cent of the vote to the 28 per cent of Lucio Gutiérrez, his nearest rival. His party also won the largest legislative block in the National Assembly, although not a majority.[3]

Correa was sworn into the Presidency on 10 August 2009, the same day as Ecuador's bicentennial.[152][153] His speech took place in front of several South American dignitaries, such as the president of Argentina Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, Bolivian President Evo Morales, Cuban President Raúl Castro, and Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez.[152] Correa used the opportunity to promise a continuation of his “socialist revolution”, his plans to end poverty and to go on “stamping out the structural causes of poverty”.[152] He also said the actions of the media were opposing his government.[153] He claims that the continuation of his "Revolución Ciudadana" policy is intended to ensure all citizens are equal.[151]

Closure of Teleamazonas

In June 2009, CONARTEL (a radio and television regulating body) imposed fines on an independent television station, Teleamazonas, for transmitting bull-fights (a partnership and sponsor of the channel) and "The Simpsons" during prime time. A third fine could lead to a temporary or permanent ban on this private television channel. In December 2009, the station was taken off the air by the Superintendent of Telecommunications [es], under a provisional suspension of 72 hours for purportedly "spreading false information."[154]

2009 Ecuador electricity crisis

Beginning November 5, rolling blackouts took place across Ecuador for two to six hours per day.[155] Government officials also urged citizens to conserve energy.[156] Economic losses from the blackouts are estimated to be in the tens of millions of dollars; factory output slowed, and storage of perishables was disrupted.[156][157]

On November 6, the government declared an emergency in the power sector, which was expected to "allow the Finance Ministry to seek to guarantee fuel imports for thermoelectric plants".[155] The government also agreed to purchase an additional 5,200 MW per hour of electricity from Peru and Colombia.[158] Government officials aimed to end power rationing before Christmas.[158]

The power crisis led to criticism of the Correa administration's management of the power sector as water levels of the reservoirs became depleted.[157]

Mining protests

In January, Ecuador was shaken by mass protests against large-scale mining. Indigenous people were demanding that they not be exploited at all and were blockading highways to make their point. Correa cited a constitutional article that prohibited the blocking of roads.[159] President Rafael Correa responded by calling the protesters “nobodies” and “extremists.”[citation needed] The government detained a number of protest leaders, charging some of them with terrorism.[citation needed] Police officers were also injured in attempting to clear blockades.[160] Eye Witnesses leader claimed "The response from the government was gunfire from the ground and the air," The leader said that police, backed by a helicopter, opened fire on the protesters unprovoked.[161] In an interview with the state-run media on Thursday, Correa said that the police were not armed and had only riot gear to protect them from demonstrators who were wielding shotguns. The Shuar man that died was killed by protesters' own weapons, and police were also injured by the same shotgun pellets that killed the brother Shuar, Correa said.[161]


In 2012, Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador called for a cross-country march to culminate in Quito on 22 March in protest against mining concessions amid concerns of environmental degradation. Correa condemned the action and called them hypocrites for having allied with the extreme right,[162] and seeking to exploit mining themselves[163]

Hydrocarbon production reforms

Correa announced that on Monday 26 July 2010 Ecuador will enact reforms to a hydrocarbons law that aims to expropriate foreign company operations unless they sign service contracts increasing state control of the industry. Correa reminded oil companies that if they don't abide by the state's policies, they will have their fields nationalized and will be forced from the country.[164]

Law of Superior education

A debate to modify this and other reforms, specially the one which granted control of the Higher Education System by the government, was practically passed with consensus by the multi-partisan National Assembly on 4 August 2010 but vetoed by the president Rafael Correa,[165] who wanted to keep the law strictly as it was originally redacted by his political party and SENPLADES (National Secretary of Panning and Development). Due to this change, there are many highly educated professionals and academicians under the old structure but estimated that only 87% of the faculty in public universities have already obtained a master's degree and fewer than 5% have PhD (although many of them have already Ecuadorian granted Doctorate degrees).[166]

2010 Ecuador crisis

On 30 September 2010, the National Police went on strike over the passage of a bill that would end the practice of giving medals and bonuses with each promotion.[167] In what was called an attempted coup d'état, protests included road blockades, storming the National Assembly and state-run television station, and the military seizure of the Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito.[168][169][170][171] President Correa went to debate with the rebellious police, but he was unsuccessful and instead challenged them to kill him, saying, "I'm not taking one step back. Gentleman, if you want to kill the president, here he is, kill him if you have the guts."[167] The police responded by attacking him and taking him hostage. While held in the hospital inside the police headquarters, Correa declared a national state of emergency.[167][172] That night, an elite army unit rescued him from the hospital amid violent clashes between the police and the army.[173] The Army then took him to Carondelet Palace, where he announced he would not pardon those responsible.[174][175] Throughout Ecuador, eight people were killed and 274 wounded in the unrest.[176]

After the rescue, Correa immediately was presented in the Palacio of Carondelet in the night of 30 September.

On the same night, eight South American Presidents attended an emergency summit of UNASUR convened that night in Buenos Aires[177] to express their full support for Ecuadorean democratic institutions and Rafael Correa.[178] The summit also announced a "democratic clause" to the UNASUR Constitutive Treaty and an agreement to take immediate and concrete steps if further similar attempts should occur.[178]

The United States declared support for Correa through its ambassador to the Organization of American States.US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton expressed "full support for President Rafael Correa, and the institutions of democratic government in that country." On 5 October, Ecuadorian foreign minister Ricardo Patiño said “I firmly believe that Mr. Obama had nothing to do with this. I hope, and trust that neither his (immediate subordinates) did.[179]

President of Unasur

Correa was a signatory to the The UNASUR Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations on 15 July 2009.[180]. Ecuador has ratified the treaty. On 10 August 2009 Correa hosted the Heads of Government of South America in Quito, as he took over the one year Pro Tempore Presidency of UNASUR.[181][182] Correa announced on 3 April 2010 that he would propose to UNASUR the creation of a united front against transnationals like the US company Chevron, which he accused of attempting to destroy his country.[183] Correa also asked that UNASUR create a commission to investigate the events that led to the 30 Sep police revolt in Ecuador in which about a dozen people died and 270 were wounded. The uprising was led by police upset over a new law that would deny them promotion bonuses. During Friday's summit, leaders also approved a democratic charter that would serve as a guide for the 12-nation bloc if any of them faced an attempted coup. The charter would have been an effective tool during Ecuador's revolt, Correa said. On 29 November 2010, UNASUR's presidency passed from Ecuador to Guyana.[184]

Lawsuit against the El Universo newspaper and Big Brother authors

Correa announced another lawsuit this time against an editorial writer and the directors of El Universo newspaper. The legal action included the opinion editor of the paper, Emilio Palacio, who was sued for defamation by a high-ranking public official last year. Correa alleged that several of Palacio's editorials were “accusations” and “slander", where Palacio stated "...ordered fire at will and without warning against a hospital full of civilians and innocent people..."[185] In an official Universo editorial it was explicitly said that he committed crimes against humanity reasons for which Mr Palacio was sued. El Universo says the president’s suit was announced several hours after the newspaper published an article about an information access request denial. While Palacio claimed, he was sued for calling Correa a "Dictator".[186]

“We are not only suing the editorial writer, but also the newspaper El Universo’s directors,” said Correa, in a radio interview on Ecuadorinmediato, quoted by El Universo. “Ecuador’s autocrat cracks down on media freedom.”[187] According to an editorial published by The Washington Post on 27 July 2011:

Last week the president personally attended the trial while thuggish supporters threw eggs and bottles at the defendants outside the courthouse. To no one’s surprise, the provisional judge hearing the case quickly ruled in the president’s favor, sentencing Mr. Palacio and the three El Universo directors to three years in prison and awarding $40 million in damages to Mr. Correa – an amount that exceeds the total value of the newspaper.[10]

As of 16 February 2012, the National Court of Justice (Ecuador's highest court) confirmed the lower court's award of $40 milion in damages, as well as the three-year prison sentences against a journalist and three executives of the newspaper.[13] The case related to unrest in September 2010, described by Mr Correa as an attempted coup, which saw him trapped inside a hospital for several hours by police officers. In an opinion article from February 2011 which appeared in El Universo, Emilio Palacio alleged that the president had ordered soldiers to fire on the hospital, which was full of civilians.[188]

Correa also filed a lawsuit against Juan Carlos Calderón and Christian Zurita, investigative journalists and authors of the book "Gran Hermano" (Big Brother). Rafael Correa insisted that if the authors of the book admitted wrongdoing and asked for forgiveness he would pardon them.[189] The lawsuit is based on the book's accusation that Correa knew of his brother Fabricio Correa's multi million dollar contracts with the government, a journalistic "investigation" into contracts signed between the president's brother, Fabricio Correa, and the State.[190][191] The authors claim was based on a testimony by Pablo Chambers, who based his accusation on a manipulated video of Correa during an interview with a radio station in Quito.[192]

Following wide condemnation of the sentences in the El Universo case[citation needed], Correa announced on 27 February 2012 that he would pardon the four individuals involved, also reminding that from the very beginning he asked for a rectification by the newspaper or an apology,[193] both which the newspaper refused, instead claiming this was censorship,[194][195] including asking Correa what he wanted them to publish.[196] He also said he would drop his case against the authors of "Gran Hermano".[14]

Correa has been accused, in the words of the President of the Inter-American Press Association, of mounting a "systematic and hostile campaign to do away with the independent press and establish, by law or through the courts, ownership of the truth that all the Ecuadoran people must swallow."[10] These complaints relate both to a series of lawsuits against journalists and to government takeovers of many media outlets.

The Washington Post reported in July 2011 that, according to a report for the National Endowment for Democracy, the government had controlled one radio station when Mr. Correa became president in 2007, but that by the time of the report it owned five television channels, four radio stations, two newspapers and four magazines.[10]

Ecuadorian constitutional referendum, 2011

Correa announced a constitutional referendum, which took place on 7 May 2011. The Ecuadorian people were asked to vote on ten questions, including a reform of the judiciary. Despite opposition members denouncing what they call a "power grab" on behalf of Correa's government.[197] Although an Exit poll driven by the "Santiago Perez" pollster showed that the 10 questions won with the 62% of the votes,[198] as the count continued the "yes" lost presence even going as far as slightly losing to the "no" for a short period of time in questions 4 and 9. Correa pledged that the data had been manipulated by counting first the votes from the provinces where the "no" have won to create the "sensation of fraud" and he predicted that the "yes" will win with at least 250.000 votes on all 10 questions.[199] At the end the "yes" won all 10 questions but only the first question got more than the 50% of the votes. [200][201][202] This was the eight election to pass during Correa's term in office.[203]

Chinese credits

In 2010 and 2011, Ecuador received Chinese credits for around US$5 billion. One of this financing model's projects is the hydroelectric Coca Codo Sinclair that the Asian giant builds and it finances with something more than US$2 billion.[204]

Correa pointed out that that nation gives credits to Ecuador to 7.0 percent, but it is to finance projects with 23 or 25 percent of profitability, that which is extremely good business, when referring to two thousand million dollars that will be dedicated to public investment initiatives, sustained that it is a “good business” to obtain credits with interests of 7 percent to finance projects with a profitability that it goes from the 23 to 25 percent.[205] Correa discarded that the Ecuador is delivered to or have mortgaged its petroleum to China.

On this point he mentioned that in the 2006 75% of the Ecuadorian petroleum went to United States, in exchange for nothing. “Now we have 50% of the committed petroleum with China, in exchange for thousands of millions of dollars to finance the development of this country.[206]

Restructuring of the justice

After the results of the popular consultation[207] was created the Council of the Transitory Judicature integrated by three members Tania Aryans (delegate of the Legislative), Paulo Rodríguez (delegate of the Executive) and Fernando Yávar (delegate of the Function of Transparency).[208] This advice has 18 months to restructure the Judicial Function Among its functions it was the one of creating the new National Court of Justice whose possession was given January 2012,[209] 21 whose members will be in the positions for nine years.[210] The court of justice was created through a competition of merits and opposition. Correa who participated of the act of possession of the new domestic magistrates,[211] said that the administration of justice is an imperium of the state and at the same time, it is a public service, also it expressed his total back to the new judges of the National Court of Justice (CNJ)[212]

2012 Ecuadorian protests

Ecuador's largest advocacy group for Indians plans a two-week march to Quito beginning Thursday to protest President Rafael Correa's land and water policies that they say are hurting their way of life. Correa accused the group, called CONAIE, of trying to destabilize his government and urged his followers to mobilize against them. The Indians are supported by the Popular Democratic Movement, a leftist party, the National Union of Educators and CONAIE, which supported Correa at the start of his administration in 2007 but soon moved to the opposition.[213] The support march to the Government concentrated to thousands of demonstrators coming from different domestic parts that met in a park where they enjoyed artistic shows summoned to celebrate the Woman's International Day.[214] The march began in an amazon region to the domestic southeast and it looks for to arrive to Quito next 22 March. It has the back of teachers' organizations and students that this Thursday 8 March will concentrate in Quito and in several Ecuadorian counties

Correa declared that the protests look for to destabilize his government and he called to their followers to “to continue mobilized up to March 22”. “to resist peacefully. March 8 go to repletar the Square of the Independence (in front of Government's Palacio, in Quito) to tell them: ‘Here is and this revolution doesn't stop it anything neither nobody! '”, he manifested. Those in favor of the Government also announced the realization of countermarches in diverse domestic counties,[215] as in Cuenca where they carried out a concentration that gathered around fifteen thousand people.[216]

Public image

Rafael Correa in Otavalo

According to the Cedatos, Correa began his presidency with a 73 percent approval rating.[217] An opinion poll carried out by Profiles of Opinion in the cities of Quito and Guayaquil, in March 2012, it indicates that 80,5% of those interviewed qualifies as positive the president's administration Correa.[218] According to the Mitofsky of April 2012, as regards the “approval of leaders in America and the world”, the president Correa, possesses an excellent evaluation.[219] that it even increases from 75% to 81% of August from 2011 to January 2012.[220]


Rafael Correa has been honored with:

Necklace of the Order of the Liberator, highest honour of Venezuela 11 October 2007.[221]

Conquering Insignia of Tarqui in the Grade of Grand Cross of the Armed forces of Ecuador in gratitude for the administration carried out for the benefit of the soldiers of the Homeland.[222]

Necklace of the Order of the Liberator General San Martín, highest honour of the Argentine Republic, 20 April 2008[223]

Order Great Marshal of Ayacucho of Venezuela for the bolivarian character of his administration in Ecuador, February 2009.[224]

Order Francisco Morazán in the Grade of Grand Cross, Insignia of Gold of the Republic of Honduras.[225]

Great Necklace of the Order of the Sun (Peru), highest honour of that country, 9 June 2010.[226]

Medal of Honor in the Grade of Grand Cross, highest honour of the Congress of Peru, 12 June 2010.[227]

Order Augusto César Sandino in grade Battles of San Jacinto, highest honour of the Republic of Nicaragua 13 November 2010 for surviving the coup d'état.[228]

Great Necklace of the Ecuadorian Federation of Soccer in November 2010 in gratitude for the expedition of the Law of the Sport.[229]

Medal of “Distinguished Visitor”, by the UCSG in the inauguration of the III International University Congress, Development and Cooperation.[230]

Highest honour on the part of the Association of retired Generals of the National Police to have brought about the approval of pensions to almost 20,000 former uniformed officers.[231]

Doctor Honoris Causa

Correa is a Doctor Honoris Causa of the Universidad Nacional de Asunción (Paraguay, March 2009)[232] of the State University of International Relationships (Russia, October 2009),[233] of the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina, May 2010)[234] of the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic, May 2010).[235] of the Private University of Chiclayo (Perú, March 2012)<[232] of the Bahçeşehir University of Istanbul (Turkey, March 2012)[236]

Also, in April 2010 he received the Prize for Exceptional Academic Achievement 2009 of the University of Illinois.[237] On 3 December 2010, the UBA Cultural Center of Buenos Aires gave him the Faces and Masks Democracy Prize.[238]

Work published


Ecuador: "From Banana Republic to Non Republic," Random House, Quito, 2009.[239]

"The vulnerability of the Ecuadorian economy: Toward better economic politics for employment generation, reduction of poverty and inequality," Program of the United Nations for Development (UNDP), Quito, 2004.[240]

"The challenge of development: are we prepared for the future?," Publications of the San Francisco de Quito University, Quito, 1996.[241]

Scientific articles


"The Washington Consensus in Latin America: to a Quantitative Evaluation", working paper, San Francisco de Quito University, Quito, April 2002.

"Structural Reform and Growth in Latin America: a sensitivity analysis", CEPAL Magazine, number 76, April 2002, Santiago de Chile.

"One Market, One Currency: the Economic Desirability of Monetary Union for the CAN", working paper, University of Illinois at Urban-Champaign, Illinois, May 2001.

"Destabilizing Speculation in the Exchange Market: the Ecuadorian Marries", working paper. University of Illinois at Urban-Champaign, Illinois, January 2000.

"Endogenous Institutional Change? To a Critical View of the Political Economy of the Reforms: the Ecuadorian Marries", working paper. University of Illinois at Urban-Champaign, Illinois, August 1999.

"The Ecuadorian ISI Revisited", working paper, University of Illinois at Urban-Champaign, Illinois, May 1999.

Reports and articles for non scientific publications


"Another Economy is possible", in Another Ecuador it is possible, joint author with Alberto Acosta and other, to be published. Quito, September 2005.

"Capital and Development", Institutional report for the international seminar "Independence of Justice, democracy and development", Quito, 3 and 4 March 2005.

"Debt exchange: everything in the creditor's function", working paper, San Francisco de Quito University, February, 2005.

"Dolarización and desdolarización: more elements for the debate", commentaries to the dossier of Íconos 19, 20, Latin American Ability of Social Sciences, Quito, September 2004.

"From Banana Republic to Non-Republic: The last three decades of the economic history of the Ecuador” ", working paper, University San Francisco of Quito, August 2004. "The sophysm of Free Trade", in Free trade: myths and realities, Alberto Acosta and Eduardo Gudymas, editors, editions Abya-Yala, Quito, July 2004.

"Ecuador: Absurd dolarizations and monetary unions", report for the seminar "Dolarization and alternatives", Andean University Simón Bolívar, Quito, July 2004.

"Vulnerability and uncertainty of the Latin American" economies, report for the seminar Integration, development and justness Quito, May 2004.

"Beyond the autistic" economy, in Economy and humanism number 15, have of the Institute of Economic Investigations of the Papal Catholic University of the Ecuador, PUCE, Quito, April 2004.

"Dolarización and Dutch" illness, working paper, University San Francisco of Quito, Quito, December 2003.

"The same of the worst thing: the economic politics of Lucio's Government Gutiérrez", working paper together with the economists Marco Flores and Eduardo Valencia, Forum Alternative Ecuador, Quito, November 2003.

"The economic politics of Lucio's Government Gutiérrez", magazine Íconos, Latin American Ability of Social Sciences, Quito, April 2003.

"Invigoration of the state institucionalidad for the reactivation", report for National Dialogue 2003, Quito, January 2003.

"The positivism of the modern" economy, Destiempo have, Quito, October 2002.

"Toward where does the Ecuadorian balance of payments go? ", Economic Letter, Corporation of Studies for the Development, Cordes, do Quito, April 2002.

"The Argentinean convertibility and the Ecuadorian" dolarización, magazine Alternatives, Catholic University of Santiago from Guayaquil, Guayaquil, February 2002.



of Rafael Correa's Government
Ministry Minister (Current)
Vice President Lenin Moreno
Ministry of Defense Javier Ponce Cevallos
Ministry of Government, Police and Cultos José Serrano
Ministry of Justice, Human rights and Cults Johana Pesántez Benítez
Ministry of Environment Marcela Aguiñaga
Ministry of Culture Érika Sylva Charvet
Ministry of Sports José Francisco Cevallos
Ministry of Education Gloria Vidal
Ministry of Public Health Carina Vance Mafla
Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion Ximena Ponce León
Ministry of Urban development and Housing Walter Solís
Ministry of Nonrenewable Natural Resources Wilson Pástor Morris
Ministry of Telecommunications Jaime Guerrero
Ministry of Energy Esteban Albornoz
Ministry of Industries and Competitiveness Verónica Sión
Ministry of Agriculture and Cattle raising Staynely Vera
Ministry of Tourism Freddy Ehlers
Ministry of Transport and Public Works María de los Ángeles Duarte
Ministry of Industrial relations Richard Espinosa Guzmán
Ministry of External Relationships, Trade and Integration (Chancellor) Ricardo Patiño
Ministry of Economy and Finances Patricio Rivera
Ministry of the Coast Nicolás Issa Wagner
Coordinating Ministry of Social Development Jeannette Sánchez Zurita
Coordinating Ministry of Cultural and Natural Patrimony María Fernanda Espinosa
Coordinating Ministry of the Strategic Sectors Jorge Glas Espinel
Ministry of Coordination of the Politics and Decentralized Autonomous Governments Doris Solíz Carrión
Coordinating Ministry of the Economic Politics Katiuska King
Coordinating Ministry of Internal and External safe-deposit Homero Arellano
Ministry of Coordination of the Production, Employment and Competitiveness Nathalie Cely
Coordinating Ministry of Human Talent Guillermo Solórzano
Bank of the State Leonardo Vicuña Izquierdo
National Bank of Development Galo Naula
Central Bank of Ecuador Diego Borja
Fund of Solidarity Jorge Glas Espinel
Service of Intern Rents Carlos Marx Carrasco
Petroecuador Marco Calvopiña Vega


Secretaries of State

of Rafael Correa's Government
Secretary Secretaries (Current)
Secretary General of the Administration Dr. Vinicio Alvarado Espinel
Secretary of Planning and Development
René Ramírez
Secretary of Town, Social Movements and Participacion Citizen Lcda. María Luisa Moreno
Secretary General of the Communication Fernando Alvarado Espinel
Secretary National of Migrant Dra. Betty Tola
Secretary National for Risk Management María del Pilar Cornejo R. de Grunauer
Secretary National of Science and Technology Eco. René Ramírez
Secretary General Of Transparent Managent Edwin jarrín
Secretary National of the Water Ing. Cristobal Punina Lozano


  1. Presidencia de la República[dead link]
  2. [1] President's Official Blog
  3. "Avenger against oligarchy" wins in Ecuador The Real News, 27 April 2009.
  4. "Latin American Program". Wilson Center. http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?topic_id=1425&fuseaction=topics.event_summary&event_id=481319. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  5. Romero, Simon (27 April 2009). "Ecuador Re-elects President, Preliminary Results Show". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/27/world/americas/27ecuador.html.
  6. "Most Popular E-mail Newsletter". USA Today. 7 May 2011. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2011-05-07-ecuador-referendum_n.htm.
  7. "Public spending fuels Ecuador leader's popularity". Voxxi.com. 2012-01-25. http://voxxi.com/public-spending-fuels-ecuador-leaders-popularity-americas/. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
  8. Official results of the Elections (revised 13 May 2009)
  9. Ghosh, Jayati (19 January 2012). "Could Ecuador be the most radical and exciting place on Earth?". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2012/jan/19/ecuador-radical-exciting-place.
  10. "Ecuador's autocrat cracks down on media freedom." The Washington Post. 28 July 2011. Accessed on 10 September 2011 at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/ecuadors-autocrat-cracks-down-on-media-freedom/2011/07/27/gIQA5BRtfI_story.html?wpisrc=nl_cuzheads
  11. 14 May 2007 IAPA press release, IFEX 14 May 2007
  12. 17 May 2007 Correa quiere "silenciar" a periodistas en Ecuador, dice el Comité Mundial de Prensa, El Comercio 17 May 2007
  13. "Ecuador's Correa wins fresh victory against press" Miami Herald, 16 February 2012. Accessed on 17 February 2012 at: http://www.miamiherald.com/2012/02/16/2645657/ecuadors-correa-wins-fresh-victory.html
  14. Neuman, William. "President of Ecuador to Pardon Four in Libel Case". The New York Times, 27 February 2012. Accessed on 29 February 2012 at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/28/world/americas/president-of-ecuador-to-pardon-four-in-libel-case.html
  15. http://cnnespanol.cnn.com/2012/09/23/rafael-correa-y-mauricio-funes-los-presidentes-de-mayor-indice-de-aprobacion-en-america/
  16. "Rafael Correa Icaza". GeneAll.net. 23 March 1934. http://www.geneall.net/H/per_page.php?id=633442. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
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  18. Correa, Rafael. "Hoja de Vida Rafael Correa". http://ecuador.tusojos.com/2006/11/13/hoja-de-vida-rafael-correa/.
  19. Soto, Alonso (14 April 2007). "Ecuador's Correa admits father was drug smuggler". Reuter News – Edition UK (Reuters). http://uk.reuters.com/article/2007/04/14/idUKN1423713820070414. Retrieved Sat 14 Apr 2007 8:36 pm BST.
  20. "Anne, dolida por "mentiras" contra su esposo Rafael | HOY | 05/Noviembre/2006". Hoy.com.ec. 14 October 2011. http://www.hoy.com.ec/noticias-ecuador/anne-dolida-por-mentiras-contra-su-esposo-rafael-249811-249811.html. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  21. "Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado". Migranteecuatoriano.com. http://www.migranteecuatoriano.com/ecuador/174-presidentes/324-rafael-vicente-correa-delgado-. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  22. "Rafael Correa Delgado / Ecuador / América del Sur / Biografías Líderes Políticos / Documentación / CIDOB home page" (in (Spanish)). Cidob.org. 20 October 2008. http://www.cidob.org/documentacion/biografias_lideres_politicos/america_del_sur/ecuador/rafael_correa_delgado. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
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  24. (Spanish)Hoja de Vida, Sitio Oficial de la Campaña. [3]
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