Juba is the capital and largest city of the Republic of South Sudan. It also serves as the capital of Central Equatoria, the smallest of the ten states of South Sudan. The city is situated on the White Nile and functions as the seat and metropolis of Juba County.
In 2005, Juba's population was 163,442. Based on analysis of aerial photos, the best estimate of several donors working in Juba calculated the 2006 population at approximately 250,000. The 5th Sudan Population and Housing Census took place in April/May 2008, stating the population of Juba County to be 372,413 (the majority residing in Juba City, which dominates the county), but the results were rejected by the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan. Juba is developing very rapidly due to oil money and the Chinese coming for work and development. In 2011, the population of the city of Juba is estimated at approximately 372,410.
In the 19th century, a trading post and a mission was located in the vicinity of Juba called Gondokoro. It was the southernmost outpost of the Egyptian garrison, supported by a handful of soldiers, mostly ill due to the malaria and blackwater fever that was dominant in the region. Gondokoro was also the base of the explorer and campaigner Sir Samuel Baker during his expeditions to what is now Southern Sudan and northern Uganda from 1863 to 1865, and from 1871 to 1873.
In 1922, a small number of Greek traders arrived in the area and established Juba on the western bank of the White Nile. The Greeks, who had excellent relations with the indigenous tribe of Juba (the Bari), built what is known today as the Business District.
From 1899 to 1956, Juba was in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan which was jointly administered by the United Kingdom and Egypt. British hopes to join the southern part of Sudan with Uganda were dashed in 1947 by an agreement in Juba, also known as the Juba Conference, to unify northern and southern Sudan. In 1955, a mutiny of southern soldiers in Torit town sparked the First Sudanese Civil War, which did not end until 1972. During the Second Sudanese Civil War, Juba was a strategic location that was the focus of much fighting.
In 2005, Juba became the interim seat and the capital of the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan, although the proposed interim capital before the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement was Rumbek. With the advent of peace, the United Nations increased its presence in Juba, whereas many Southern Sudan operations had until that time been managed from Kenya. Under the leadership of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, the United Nations established a camp known as "OCHA Camp", which served as a base for many United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations.
Juba became the world's newest national capital on 9 July 2011, when South Sudan formally declared its independence from the Republic of the Sudan. However, the South Sudanese government and others have expressed dissatisfaction with the city's suitability as a national capital, and the government studied a proposal that would see a new planned city built as a replacement capital elsewhere, most likely Ramciel in Lakes.
On 5 September 2011, the government announced the capital would indeed move to Ramciel, some 250km away from Juba, closer to the border with north Sudan.
Juba is led by a city council headed by Mayor Mohammed El Haj Baballa. This council was formed in March 2011 and Baballa appointed to lead it by Governor Clement Wani Konga. Former Yei County Commissioner David Lokonga Moses was appointed as deputy mayor. A ministerial committee to keep Juba clean and sanitary was also created by gubernatorial decree at the same time.
Prior to March 2011, the area now administered by Juba City Council was divided into Juba, Kator, and Muniki payams. It is now a standalone subdivision of Juba County, of which it is the county seat.
The city is a river port and the southern terminus of traffic along the Nile, properly called the Bahr al Jabal section of the White Nile. Before the civil war, Juba was also a transportation hub, with highways connecting it to Kenya, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Because of the war Juba can hardly be called a transportation hub anymore. Roads and the river harbour are currently not in use due to disrepair. The United Nations and Southern Sudanese government are repairing the roads, but full repair is expected to take many years. In 2003, the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD) started to clear the roads leading from Juba to Uganda and Kenya. It was expected that these roads would be completely de-mined and rebuilt in the course of 2006–2008. The rebuilding of the roads, which are mostly un-paved, takes a tremendous amount of effort and time because of the limited work season due to the lengthy rainy season, which lasts from March until October. The roads are considerably important for the peace process in Sudan as people need them to return to their homes and to regain what they feel is a normal life again. The first road that has started to be rebuilt is the road to Uganda. This road is particularly important, as many of the original inhabitants of Juba fled to Uganda during the war. As of 2009[update], there are three paved roads in Juba, one which was re-surfaced in July. The main one is a concrete road, built by the British in the 1950s.
As of April 2009, Juba Airport is the site of large numbers of flights bringing UN and NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) aid into Southern Sudan, as well as passengers and general air freight. The airport is very busy, among the busiest in East Africa. The construction of a new terminal was begun in late 2007 when the oil prices were very high ($100+). Since then, with the oil prices going back down, the fate of the new terminal is uncertain. As of December 2009, there were daily flights to Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya; Khartoum International Airport in Sudan; Entebbe International Airport in Entebbe, Uganda; and Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) has a large compound near the Juba Airport.
Between 2008 and 2011, the Ugandan government and the South Sudanese government, undertook joint efforts to develop a railway link between the Northern Ugandan city of Gulu and Juba, with an extension to Wau. A memorandum of understanding between the two governments was signed to that effect in August 2008. The same memorandum outlined plans to develop the road network between the two countries. Recent media reports from the region suggest that the railway link from Juba, may link directly with Kenya, bypassing Uganda.
The city's growth in the months and years leading up to independence has been described as "chaotic".
Juba has been described as undergoing an economic boom, especially in the past five years and since independence. The prospect of an economic boom has brought thousands of merchants to Juba, mostly from northern Sudan and from East Africa. As of October 2010[update], several regional and international businesses have established a presence in Juba. The Kenyan banking conglomerate Kenya Commercial Bank has its Southern Sudanese headquarters in the city and a branch network of eleven (11) branches throughout Southern Sudan. The three indigenous Southern Sudanese commercial banks namely; Buffalo Commercial Bank, Ivory Bank and Nile Commercial Bank, all maintain their headquarters in Juba. Equity Bank, another regional finance services provider also has a branch in Juba. National Insurance Corporation (NIC), the leading Ugandan insurance services provider maintains an office in the city.
Juba has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw), and as it lies near the equator, temperatures are hot year-round. However, little rain falls from November to March, which is also the time of the year with the hottest maximum temperatures, reaching 38 °C (100 °F) in February. From April to October, upwards of 100 millimetres (3.9 in) rain falls per month. The annual total precipitation is 1,000 millimetres (39 in).
|Climate data for Juba (1971–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||42 |
|Average high °C (°F)||36.8 |
|Average low °C (°F)||20.1 |
|Record low °C (°F)||16 |
|Rainfall mm (inches)||6.7 |
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.4||2.0||6.6||11.6||12.4||10.3||13.0||11.5||8.6||10.4||6.5||1.9||96.2|
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation |
|Source #2: World Weather and Climate Information  for rainfall.|
People from Juba
- Aheu Deng, beauty queen and fashion model.
- Independent Moses Nunuh, first child born in South Sudan after its independence. In common with many other children in South Sudan, he died before his first birthday.
- Isaac Vuni (8 July 2009). "South Sudan parliament throw outs census results". Sudan Tribune. http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article31746.
- "Estimated Population In 2011". Wolframalpha.com. http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=Juba&lk=1&a=ClashPrefs_*City.*Juba.CentralEquatoria.Sudan--. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
- "Estimated Population In 2006". Tripwiser.com. http://www.tripwiser.com/trip_destination-Juba_Sudan?itiNodeId=8a8c80fe18ab78760118ac5f68cd2290&eType=site. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
- To The Heart Of The Nile: Lady Florence Baker and the Exploration of Central Africa, by Pat Shipman
- "New capital city for South Sudan?". Radio Netherlands. 6 February 2011. http://www.rnw.nl/africa/article/new-capital-city-south-sudan. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- Stephen, Juma John (3 April 2011). "CES Governor Appoints Mayor For Juba City Council". Gurtong. http://www.gurtong.net/ECM/Editorial/tabid/124/ctl/ArticleView/mid/519/articleId/5065/CES-Governor-Appoints-Juba-Town-Mayor.aspx. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- "Central Equatoria State". NileBuffalo Gazette. 2008. http://www.nilebuffalo.com/resource_detail.php?countryID=1. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- "Gulu – Juba Railway In The Offing". Pachodo.org. 2010-09-20. http://www.pachodo.org/20080908783/Pachodo.org-English-Articles/gulu-nimule-juba-wau-railway-line-in-offing.html. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
- Thome, Wolfgang H. (2010-09-14). "Railway Link From Juba May Go Directly To Kenya". Eturbonews.com. http://www.eturbonews.com/18517/railway-link-juba-may-go-directly-kenya. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
- "About KCB Southern Sudan". Kcbbankgroup.com. 2008-03-04. http://www.kcbbankgroup.com/su/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1&Itemid=1. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
- NIC Expands Into Sudan[dead link]
- "Weather Information for Juba". World Meteorological Organisation (UN). http://worldweather.wmo.int/085/c01541.htm. Retrieved 2011-07-09.
- "Average Weather in Juba, Sudan". World Weather and Climate Information. http://www.weather-and-climate.com/average-monthly-Rainfall-Temperature-Sunshine,Juba,Sudan. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
- "The First South Sudanese baby named Independent". CBC News. 10 July 2011. http://www.cbc.ca/news/offbeat/story/2011/07/10/independent-baby-sudan.html. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Ros Wynne-Jones (7 July 2012). "Happy Birthday South Sudan?". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/happy-birthday-south-sudan-7912244.html. Retrieved 9 July 2012. "Independent Moses, like one in 10 babies in South Sudan, had not reached his first birthday, living of Africa's biggest killer, diarrhoea"