Jakarta ( /dʒəˈkɑrtə/), officially known as the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Located on the northwest coast of Java, Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre, and with a population of 10,187,595 as of November 2011, it is the most populous city in Indonesia and in Southeast Asia, and is the thirteenth most populated city in the world. The official metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabekjur (a name formed by combining the initial syllables of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi with the final syllable of Cianjur), is the second largest in the world, yet the metropolis's suburbs still continue beyond it. Jakarta is listed as a global city in the 2008 Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) research. and has an area of 661 square kilometres (255 sq mi). This area has population of well over 28 million, making it one of the world's largest conurbations in terms of number of inhabitants.
Established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies (when it was known as Batavia) and has continued as the capital of Indonesia since the country's independence was declared in 1945.
The city is the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat. Jakarta is served by the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport, and Tanjung Priok Harbour; it is connected by several intercity and commuter railways, and served by several bus lines running on reserved busways.
The site which nowadays is referred to as Jakarta, has been home to multiple settlements along with their respective names: Sunda Kelapa (397–1527), Jayakarta (1527–1619), Batavia (1619–1949), and Djakarta (1949–1972).
Its current name is derived from the word "Jayakarta". The origins of this word lie in the Old Javanese and thus ultimately in the Sanskrit language. "Jayakarta" translates as "victorious deed", "complete act", or "complete victory".
Jakarta is nicknamed Big Durian, because the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York City (the Big Apple).
The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the fourth century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Kingdom of Sunda. From 7th to early 13th century port of Sunda is within the sphere of influence of Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1200, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula, and western Java (Sunda). The source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, pepper from Sunda being among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles. The harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the fourteenth century, it was a major trading port for Sunda kingdom.
The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices. The Kingdom of Sunda made an alliance treaty with Portugal by allowing the Portuguese to build a port in 1522 in order to defend against the rising power of the Sultanate of Demak from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, and became a fiefdom of the Sultanate of Banten which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre.
Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682.
Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with the English merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615.
The former Stadhuis of Batavia, the seat of Governor General of VOC. The building now serves as Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town area.
When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch deteriorated, Jayawikarta's soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. Prince Jayakarta's army and the English were defeated by the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen (J.P. Coen). The Dutch burned the English fort, and forced the English to retreat on their ships. The victory consolidated Dutch power and in 1619 they renamed the city Batavia.
Commercial opportunities in the capital of the Dutch colony attracted Indonesian and especially Chinese immigrants. This sudden population increase created burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. Following a revolt, 5,000 Chinese were massacred by the Dutch and natives on 9 October 1740 and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls. The city began to move further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 encouraged more people to move far south of the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed in 1818, the housing park of Menteng was started in 1913, and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area. By 1930 Batavia had more than 500,000 inhabitants, including 37,067 Europeans.
During World War II, the city was renamed from Batavia to "Jakarta" (short form of Jayakarta) by the Indonesian nationalists after conquering the city from the Dutch in 1942 with the help of the Japanese forces.[clarification needed]
Following World War II, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from Allied-occupied Jakarta during their fight for Indonesian independence and established their capital in Yogyakarta. In 1950, once independence was secured, Jakarta was once again made the national capital. Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno, envisaged Jakarta as a great international city, and instigated large government-funded projects with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture. Projects included a clover-leaf highway, a major boulevard (Jalan MH Thamrin-Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monument, Hotel Indonesia, a shopping centre, and a new parliament building. In October 1965, Jakarta was the site of an abortive coup attempt in which 6 top generals were killed, precipitating a violent anti-communist purge in which half-a million people were killed, including many ethnic Chinese, and the beginning of Suharto's New Order. A monument stands where the generals' bodies were dumped.
In 1966, Jakarta was declared a "special capital city district" (daerah khusus ibukota), thus gaining a status approximately equivalent to that of a state or province. Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as Governor from the mid-60's commencement of the "New Order" through to 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built several hospitals, and a large number of new schools. He also cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects—some for the benefit of the Suharto family—and tried to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city in order to stem the overcrowding and poverty. Foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom which changed the face of the city.
The boom ended with the 1997/98 East Asian Economic crisis putting Jakarta at the center of violence, protest, and political maneuvering. After 32 years in power, support from President Suharto began to wane. Tensions reached a peak in when four students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces; four days of riots and violence ensued that killed an estimated 1,200, and destroyed or damaged 6,000 buildings. Much of the rioting targeted Chinese Indonesians. Suharto resigned as president, and Jakarta has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia. Jemaah Islamiah-connected bombings occurred almost annually in the city between 2000 and 2005, with another bombing in 2009.
Kota or kotamadya (cities) and regency of Jakarta
Map of the cities (kotamadya) in Jakarta province. Each city is divided into subdistricts (kecamatan).
Officially, Jakarta is not a city, but a province with special status as the capital of Indonesia. It has a governor (instead of a mayor), and is divided into several sub-regions with their own administrative systems. As a province, the official name of Jakarta is Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta ("Special Capital City District of Jakarta"), which in Indonesian is abbreviated to DKI Jakarta.
Jakarta is divided into five kota or kotamadya ("cities" – formerly municipalities), each headed by a mayor – and one regency (kabupaten) headed by a regent. In August 2007, Jakarta held its first ever election to choose a governor, whereas previously the city's governors were appointed by the local house of representatives. The poll is part of a country-wide decentralization drive, allowing for direct local elections in several areas.
The cities/municipalities of Jakarta are:
- Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat) is Jakarta's smallest city and home to most of Jakarta's administrative and political center. It is characterized by large parks and Dutch colonial buildings. Landmarks include the National Monument (Monas), the Istiqlal Mosque, the Jakarta Cathedral, and museums.
- West Jakarta (Jakarta Barat) has the highest concentration of small-scale industries in Jakarta. The area includes Jakarta's Chinatown and Dutch colonial landmarks such as the Chinese Langgam building and Toko Merah. West Jakarta contains part of Jakarta Old Town.
- South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan), originally planned as a satellite city, is now the location of large upscale shopping centres and affluent residential areas. Jakarta Selatan functions as Jakarta's ground water buffer, but recently the green belt areas are threatened by new developments. Much of the CBD area of Jakarta is concentrated in Setia Budi, South Jakarta, bordering the Tanah Abang/Sudirman area of Central Jakarta.
- East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur) territory is characterized by several industrial sectors erected in this city. There are also still some areas of swamps and rice fields in this city.
- North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara) is the only city in Jakarta that is bounded by the sea (Java Sea). It is the location of the Tanjung Priok Port. Large-scale and medium-scale industries are concentrated in North Jakarta. North Jakarta contains part of Jakarta Old Town, formerly known as Batavia since the 17th century, and was a centre of VOC trade activity in Dutch East Indies. Also located in North Jakarta is Ancol Dreamland (Taman Impian Jaya Ancol), currently the largest integrated tourism area in South East Asia.
The only regency (kabupaten) of Jakarta is:
- Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu), formerly a subdistrict of North Jakarta, is a collection of 105 small islands located on Java Sea. It has a high conservation value because of its unique and special ecosystems. Marine tourism, such as diving, water bicycle, and wind surfing, is the most important touristic activity in this territory. The main transportation between these islands are speed boat or small ferries.
|City/Regency||Area (km2)||Total population (2010 Census)||Population Density (per km2) 2010|
|South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan)||141.27||2,057,080||14,561|
|East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur)||188.03||2,687,027||14,290|
|Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat)||48.13||898.883||18,676|
|West Jakarta (Jakarta Barat)||129.54||2,278,825||17,592|
|North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara)||146.66||1,645,312||11,219|
|Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu)||8.7||21,071||2,422|
In September 1945, the government of Jakarta City was changed from the Japanese Djakarta Toku-Betsu Shi into the Jakarta National Administration. This first government was held by a Mayor until the end of 1960 when the office was changed to that of a Governor. The last mayor of Jakarta was Sudiro, until he was replaced by Dr Sumarno as Governor of the province (as the city had now become).
The ability of the regional government to respond to the many problems of Jakarta is constrained by extremely limited finances. In 2012, the total budget available to the Jakarta regional government is expected to be around Rp 36 trillion (about $US 4 billion), equivalent to around $US 350 per citizen. Priority areas of spending are expected to be education, transport, flood control measures, environment programs, and various types of social spending (such as housing).
The Jakarta provincial government, like all other provincial governments in Indonesia, relies on transfers from the central government for the bulk of budget income. Local (non-central government) sources of revenue are incomes from various taxes such as vehicle ownership and vehicle transfer fees and so on.
In recent years, the Jakarta provincial government has consistently run a surplus of between 15-20% of total planned spending, largely because of delays in procurement procedures and other inefficiencies in the spending process. The regular underspending is a matter of frequent public comment but the legal and administrative blockages that cause the underspending problem seem very difficult to overcome.
Geography and climate
Jakarta is located on the northwest coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Sea. Officially, the area of the Jakarta Special District is 662 km2 of land area and 6,977 km2 of sea area. Jakarta lies in a low, flat basin, averaging 7 metres (23 ft) above sea level; 40% of Jakarta, particularly the northern areas, is below sea level, while the southern parts are comparatively hilly. Rivers flow from the Puncak highlands to the south of the city, across the city northwards towards the Java Sea; the most important[clarification needed] is the Ciliwung River, which divides the city into the western and eastern principalities. Other rivers include the Pesanggrahan, and Sunter.
These rivers, combined with Jakarta's low topography make it prone to flooding from swollen rivers in the wet season and high sea tides. Other contributing factors include clogged sewage pipes and waterways that service an increasing population, in addition to deforestation near rapidly urbanizing Bogor and Depok in Jakarta's hinterland. Furthermore, Jakarta is an urban area with complex socio-economic problems that indirectly contribute to triggering a flood event. Major floods occurred in 1996 when 5,000 hectares of land were flooded and 2007. Losses from infrastructure damage and state revenue were at least 5.2 trillion rupiah (572 million US dollars) and at least 85 people were killed and about 350,000 people forced from their homes. Approximately 70% of Jakarta's total area was flooded with water up to four meters deep in parts of the city.
In May 2011, the Jakarta Environmental Management Agency categorized all rivers in Jakarta as polluted; 71% of them were heavily polluted, 20% were partly polluted and 9% were lightly polluted.
East Flood Canal (BKT) in eastern Jakarta was a national project which began in 2003 and late 2009 reached the Java sea and will be accomplished in 2011. It was 23.5 kilometers length which linking five rivers: Cipinang, Sunter, Buaran, Jati Kramat and Cakung. It will reduce flood and hope as a 2 kilometers rowing sport venue too. To ease from flood, Jakarta Emergency Dredging Innitiave (JEDI) phase-2 will make underground canal (siphon) from Ciliwung river to Cipinang river and then go through to East Flood Canal. It will lowering flood at Cawang, Kampung Melayu, Bukit Duri and Kebun Baru. The length will be one kilometer and will be finished at 2016.
Besides flood from the rivers, Jakarta is also sinking about 5 to 10 centimeters each year and up to 20 centimeters in northern Jakarta mainland. To solve it, the Netherlands will give $4 million for a feasibility study to build a dike on Jakarta Bay. The ring dike will be provided with pumping system and retention area, would regulate and control seawater and use also as additional toll road. The project will be built by 2025.
The Thousand Islands, which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay north of the city.
Jakarta has a hot and humid climate on the boundary between tropical monsoon (Am) and savanna (Aw) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Despite being located relatively close to the equator, the city has distinct wet and dry seasons. The wet season in Jakarta covers the majority of the year, running from November through June. The remaining four months forms the city’s dry season. Located in the western part of Java, Jakarta’s wet season rainfall peak is January with average monthly rainfall of 389 millimetres (15.3 in), and its dry season low point is September with a monthly average of 30 millimetres (1.2 in).
|Climate data for Jakarta|
|Average high °C (°F)||31.5 |
|Average low °C (°F)||24.2 |
|Rainfall mm (inches)||389.7 |
|Avg. rainy days||26||20||15||18||13||17||5||5||6||9||22||12||168|
|Source: World Meteorological Organisation|
As the economic and political capital of Indonesia, Jakarta attracts many domestic immigrants who bring their various languages, dialects, foods and customs.
The "Betawi" (Orang Betawi, or "people of Batavia") is a term used to describe the descendants of the people living in and around Batavia and recognized as an ethnic group from around the 18th–19th century. The Betawi people are mostly descended from various Southeast-Asian ethnic groups brought or attracted to Batavia to meet labor needs, and include people from different parts of Indonesia. The language and Betawi culture are distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese, forming itself as a language island in the surrounding area. The language is mostly based on the East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Dutch, Portuguese, Sundanese, Javanese, Chinese, and Arabic. Nowadays, the Jakarta dialect (Bahasa Jakarta), used as a street language by people in Jakarta, is loosely based on the Betawi language.
Betawi arts have a low profile in Jakarta, and most Betawi have moved to the suburbs of Jakarta, displaced by new migrants. It is easier to find Java- or Minang-based wedding ceremonies rather than Betawi weddings in Jakarta. It is easier to find Javanese Gamelan instead of Gambang Kromong (a mixture between Betawi and Chinese music) or Tanjidor (a mixture between Betawi and Portuguese music) or Marawis (a mixture between Betawi and Yaman music). However, some festivals such as the Jalan Jaksa Festival or Kemang Festival include efforts to preserve Betawi arts by inviting artists to give performances.
There has been a significant Chinese community in Jakarta for many centuries. The Chinese in Jakarta traditionally reside around old urban areas, such as Pinangsia, Pluit and Glodok (Jakarta Chinatown) areas. They also can be found in old chinatowns of Senen and Jatinegara. Officially, they make up 6% of the Jakartan population, although this number may be under-reported. Chinese culture also had influenced Betawi culture, such as the popularity of Chinese cakes and sweets, firecrackers, to Betawi wedding attire that demonstrates Chinese and Arab influences.
Jakarta has several performing art centers, such as the Taman Ismail Marzuki (TIM) art center in Cikini, Gedung Kesenian Jakarta near Pasar Baru, Balai Sarbini in Plaza Semanggi area, Bentara Budaya Jakarta in Palmerah area, Pasar Seni (Art Market) in Ancol, and traditional Indonesian art performances at the pavilions of some provinces in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah. Traditional music is often found at high-class hotels, including Wayang and Gamelan performances. Javanese Wayang Orang performances can be found at Wayang Orang Bharata theater near Senen bus terminal. As the nation's largest city and capital, Jakarta has lured much national and regional talent who hope to find a greater audience and more opportunities for success.
Jakarta hosts several prestigious art and culture festivals, and exhibitions, such as the annual Jakarta International Film Festival (JiFFest), Jakarta International Java Jazz Festival, Jakarta Fashion Week, Jakarta Fashion & Food Festival (JFFF), Jakarta Fair, Indonesia Creative Products and Jakarta Arts and Crafts exhibition. Flona Jakarta is a flora-and-fauna exhibition, held annually in August at Lapangan Banteng Park, featuring flowers, plant nurseries, and pets. The Jakarta Fair is held annually from mid-June to mid-July to celebrate the anniversary of the city and is largely centered around a trade fair. However this month-long fair also features entertainment, including arts and music performances by local bands and musicians.
Several foreign art and culture centers are also established in Jakarta, and mainly serve to promote culture and language through learning centers, libraries, and art galleries. Among these foreign art and cultural centers are China Confucius Institute, Netherlands Erasmus Huis, UK British Council, France Centre Culturel Français, Germany Goethe-Institut, Japan Foundation, and the Jawaharlal Nehru Indian Cultural Center.
The museums in Jakarta cluster around the Central Jakarta Merdeka Square area, Jakarta Old Town, and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah.
The Jakarta Old Town contains museums that are former institutional buildings of Colonial Batavia. Some of these museums are: Jakarta History Museum (former City Hall of Batavia), Wayang Museum (Puppet Museum) (former Church of Batavia), the Fine Art and Ceramic Museum (former Court House of Justice of Batavia), the Maritime Museum (former Sunda Kelapa warehouse), Bank Indonesia Museum (former Javasche Bank), and Bank Mandiri Museum (former Nederlandsche Handels Maatschappij).
Several museums clustered in central Jakarta around the Merdeka Square area include: National Museum of Indonesia (also known as Gedung Gajah ("the Elephant Building"), Monas (National Monument), Istiqlal Islamic Museum in Istiqlal mosque, and Jakarta Cathedral Museum on the second floor of Jakarta Cathedral. Also in the central Jakarta area is the Taman Prasasti Museum (former cemetery of Batavia), and Textile Museum in Tanah Abang area.
The recreational area of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah in East Jakarta contains fourteen museums, such as Indonesia Museum, Purna Bhakti Pertiwi Museum, Asmat Museum, Bayt al-Qur'an Islamic Museum, Pusaka (heirloom) Museum, and other science-based museum such as Research & Technology Information Centre, Komodo Indonesian Fauna Museum, Insect Museum, Petrol and Gas Museum, plus the Transportation Museum.
Other museums are Satria Mandala Military Museum, Museum Sumpah Pemuda, and Lubang Buaya.
Jakarta has a vast range of food available at hundreds of eating complexes located all over the city, from modest street-side foodstalls and traveling vendors to the high-class expensive restaurants. The traditional Padang restaurants and low-budget Javanese Warteg (Warung Tegal) foodstalls are ubiquitous in the capital. Next to a myriad of selections of Indonesian food and regional specialties from all over Indonesia, there is also international food, especially Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Indian, American, French, Middle Eastern, and modern fusion food. One of the most popular local dishes in Jakarta is Soto Betawi, which is a cow milk or coconut milk broth with beef tendons, intestines, tripe. The other popular foods include: kerak telor, gado-gado, sate, nasi goreng and kue cucur.
Daily newspapers in Jakarta include
- Chinese language national newspaper: Indonesia Shang Bao
- English language national newspaper: The Jakarta Post, The Jakarta Globe
- Indonesian language national newspaper: Kompas, Koran Tempo, Media Indonesia, Seputar Indonesia, Republika, Suara Pembaruan, Suara Karya, Sinar Harapan, Indo Pos, Jurnal Nasional, Harian Pelita
- Business newspaper: Bisnis Indonesia, Investor Daily, Kontan, Harian Neraca.
- Indonesian language local (Jakarta) newspaper: Pos Kota, Warta Kota, Koran Jakarta, Berita Kota,
- Sport newspaper: Top Skor
Television stations include:
- Government television: TVRI.
- Private national television: MNC TV, RCTI, Metro TV, Indosiar, ANTV, SCTV, Trans TV, TV ONE, Trans 7, and Global TV.
- Local television: B Channel, JakTV, O Channel, Elshinta TV, Daai TV, and Spacetoon.
- Cable television: First Media, TelkomVision
- Satellite television: Indovision, TelkomVision, Okevision, Aora TV, Yes TV
Many TV stations are analog PAL, but some are now are converting to digital signals.
Economy, governance and infrastructure
Jakarta's economy depends heavily on financial service, trade, and manufacturing. Industries in Jakarta include electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences manufacturing.
The economic growth of Jakarta in 2007 was 6.44% up from 5.95% the previous year, with the growth in the transportation and communication (15.25%), construction (7.81%) and trade, hotel and restaurant sectors (6.88%). In 2007, GRP (Gross Regional Domestic Product) was Rp. 566 trillion (around $US 56 billion). The largest contributions to GDRP were by finance, ownership and business services (29%); trade, hotel and restaurant sector (20%), and manufacturing industry sector (16%). In 2007, the increase in per capita GRDP of DKI Jakarta inhabitants was 11.6% compared to the previous year
Both GRDP by at current market price and GRDP by at 2000 constant price in 2007 for the Municipality of Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat), which was Rp 146 million and Rp 81 million, was higher than other municipalities in DKI Jakarta.
A new law in 2007 forbids the giving of money to beggars, buskers and hawkers, bans squatter settlements on river banks and highways, and prohibits spitting and smoking on public transportation. Unauthorized people cleaning car windscreens and taking tips for directing traffic at intersections will also be penalized. Critics of the new legislation claim that such laws will be difficult to enforce and it tends to ignore the desperate poverty of many of the capital's inhabitants.
Copying an idea implemented in Singapore's Orchard Road, in 2011, the Jakarta administration said that it would restrict on-street parking on Jl Hayam Wuruk (Haram Wuruk St) and Jl Gajah Mada in Central Jakarta. It said it would also remove illegal vendors and beggars from pavements and streets in the area. In practice, these measures have only been partially successful.
Two private companies, PALYJA and Aetra, provide piped water supply in the western and eastern half of Jakarta respectively under 25-year concession contracts signed in 1998. A public asset holding company called PAM Jaya owns the infrastructure. 80% of the water distributed in Jakarta comes through the West Tarum Canal system from Jatiluhur reservoir on the Citarum River 70 km (43 mi) southeast of the city. Water supply had been privatized by government of then President Suharto in 1998 to the French company Suez Environnement and the British company Thames Water International. Both foreign companies subsequently sold their concessions to Indonesian companies. Customer growth in the 7 first years of the concessions had been lower than before, despite substantial inflation-adjusted tariff increases during this period. In 2005 tariffs were frozen, leading the private water companies to cut down on investments.
According to PALYJA in its western half of the concession the service coverage ratio increased substantially from 34% in 1998 to 59% in 2007 and 65% in 2010. According to data by the Jakarta Water Supply Regulatory Body, access in the eastern half of the city served by PTJ increased from about 57% in 1998 to about 67% in 2004, but stagnated after that. However, other sources cite much lower access figures for piped water supply to houses, excluding access provided through public hydrants: One study estimated access as low as 25% in 2005, while another source estimates it to be as low as 18.5% in 2011. Those without access to piped water supply get water mostly from wells that are often salty and polluted with bacteria.
* 2010 Population census
The 2010 census counted some 9.58 million people, well above all government estimates. The area of DKI Jakarta is 662.33 km2, suggesting a population density of 14,464 people/km2 as the ninth largest urban population density in the world. Inwards immigration tended to negate the effect of family planning programs. The population has risen from 1.2 million in 1960 to 8.8 million in 2004, counting only its legal residents.
The population of Greater Jakarta (Jabodetabek Region) is 28,019,545. However, even these definitions of Greater Jakarta are proving to be outdated for Indonesian President Yudhoyono, who is considering expanding the definition to include areas such as Purwakarta and Sukabumi, along with a possible relocation of government functions to areas without severe congestion, thereby improving coordination of government agencies in the capital region. With such a definition, the population easily surpasses 30 million based on 2010 Census figures.
Most of Jakarta's landmarks, monuments and statues were built during Sukarno era around the 1960s and completed in Suharto era, while some are the colonial Dutch East Indies heritage. Near the national monument stands a Mahabharata themed Arjuna Wijaya chariot statue and fountain. Further south through Jalan Thamrin, the main avenue of Jakarta, the Selamat Datang monument stands on the fountain in the center of Hotel Indonesia roundabout. Other landmarks include the Istiqlal Mosque, the Jakarta Cathedral and Immanuel Church. The former Batavia Stadhuis in Jakarta Old Town is also the city's landmark. The Wisma 46 building in Central Jakarta is currently the highest building in Jakarta and Indonesia.
Some of statues and monuments in Jakarta are nationalist, such as the West Irian Liberation monument. Several Indonesian national heroes are commemorated in statues, such as Diponegoro and Kartini statues in Merdeka Square, Sudirman and Thamrin statues located in each respectable avenues, also Sukarno and Hatta statues in Proclamation Monument also on the entrance of Soekarno–Hatta International Airport.
Most of the visitors attracted to Jakarta are domestic tourists from all over Indonesia. As the gateway of Indonesia, Jakarta often serves as the stop-over for foreign visitors on their way to Indonesian popular tourist destinations such as Bali and Yogyakarta. Other than attracted to monuments, landmarks, and museums around Merdeka square and Jakarta Old Town, tourist attractions include Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Ragunan Zoo, Sunda Kelapa old port and the Ancol Dreamland complex on Jakarta Bay, including Dunia Fantasi theme park, Sea World, Atlantis Water Adventure, and Gelanggang Samudra.
Jakarta is a shopping hub in the nation also one of the best places to shop in South East Asia. The city has numerous shopping malls and traditional markets. The annual "Jakarta Great Sale" is held every year on June and July to celebrate Jakarta's anniversary with about 73 participating shopping centers in 2012.
Malls such as Plaza Indonesia, Plaza Senayan and Senayan City provides numerous selections of luxury brands. Mall Taman Anggrek, Pondok Indah Mall and Central Park Jakarta cater high-street brands such as UK's Topshop and Europe's Zara 
United Kingdom's number one department store, Debenhams has 3 outlets in the city, the first one on Senayan City, Supermall Karawaci and Lippo Mall Kemang Village. Japan's international Sogo department store has about 6 department stores which spread around shopping malls in the city. Seibu flagship store is located on Grand Indonesia Shopping Town. And French luxury department store, Galeries Lafayette will open its doors for the first time on South East Asia in Pacific Place Jakarta.
Internationally known luxury brands such as Louis Vuitton, Bulgari, Chanel, Gucci, Christian Louboutin, Balenciaga, and Giorgio Armani can be easily found on Jakarta's luxury shopping malls.
Satrio-Casablanca corridor, 3.5 kilometre-long street that is a new shopping belt in Jakarta. Many multistorey shopping centres are located here, such as Kuningan City, Mal Ambassador, and Kota Kasablanka. And Satrio-Casablanca's largest shopping centre, Ciputra World Jakarta, will opened in 2013.
Traditional markets include Blok M, Tanah Abang, Senen, Pasar Baru, Glodok, Mangga Dua, Cempaka Mas, and Jatinegara. In Jakarta there are also markets that sells specified collectable items, such as antique goods in Surabaya Street and gemstones in Rawabening Market.
Taman Lapangan Banteng (Buffalo Field Park) is located in Central Jakarta near the Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta Cathedral, and the Jakarta Central Post Office. It is about 4.5 hectares. Initially it was called Waterlooplein of Batavia and functioned as the ceremonial square during the Netherlands Indies colonial period. A number of colonial monuments and memorials erected on the square during the colonial period were demolished during the Sukarno era. The most notable monument in the square is the Monumen Pembebasan Irian Barat (Monument of the Liberation of West Irian). During the 1970s and 1980s the park was used as a bus terminal. In 1993 the park was turned into a public space again. It has become a recreation place for people and is occasionally also used as an exhibition place or for other events. The Jakarta Flona (Flora dan Fauna), the flower and decoration plants and pet exhibition, is held in this park around August annually.
Taman Suropati is located in Menteng city subdistrict in Central Jakarta. The park is surrounded by several Dutch colonial buildings. Taman Suropati was known as Burgemeester Bisschopplein during the Dutch colonial time. The park is circular shaped with a surface area of 16,322 m2. There are several modern statues in the park made by artists of the ASEAN countries, which contributes to the nickname of the park "Taman persahabatan seniman ASEAN" ("Park of the ASEAN artists friendship"). Also located in the Menteng area are the Taman Menteng and Situ Lembang pond parks. The Taman Menteng was built on the former Persija soccer Stadium.
Taman Monas (Monas Park) or Taman Medan Merdeka (Medan Merdeka Park) is a huge square where the symbol of Jakarta, Monas or Monumen Nasional (National Monument) is located. The enormous space was created by Dutch Governor General Herman Willem Daendels (1810) and was originally named Koningsplein (Kings Square). On 10 January 1993, President Soeharto initiated action for the beautification of the square. Several features in the square are a deer park and 33 trees that represents the 33 provinces of Indonesia.
In June 2011, Jakarta has only 10.5 percent Ruang Terbuka Hijau (Green Open Space) and will be added to 13.94 percent Public Green Open Space. Public Parks are include in Public Green Open Space. By 2030, the administration also hope there are 16 percent Private Green Open Space.
Jakarta was host to the Asian Games in 1962, host of the Asian Cup 2007 beside Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, and has hosted the regional-scale Southeast Asian Games in 1979, 1987 and 1997. In 2011, Jakarta together with Palembang, again host the Southeast Asian Games.
Jakarta's most popular home football club is Persija, which plays its matches in their home stadium at Bung Karno Stadium. The home match of Persija often draws its large fan – cladded with Persija's typical orange kit – to watch the match in the main stadium. The large spectators flocking to the main stadium usually worsen the traffic congestion in Jakarta. Another premiere division team is Persitara which plays its matches in the Kamal Muara Stadium in Kamal area.
The biggest stadium in Jakarta is the Gelora Bung Karno Stadium with a capacity of 88,083 seats. The Senayan sports complex has several sport venues, including the Bung Karno soccer stadium, Madya Stadium, Istora Senayan, aquatic arena, baseball field, basketball court, badminton court, a shooting range, several indoor and outdoor tennis court and a golf driving range. The Senayan complex was built in 1959 to accommodate the Asian Games in 1962. For basketball, the Kelapa Gading Sport Mall in Kelapa Gading, North Jakarta, with a capacity of 7,000 seats, is the home arena of the Indonesian national basketball team.
The Jakarta Car-Free Days are held weekly on Sunday on the main avenues of the city, Jalan Sudirman and Jalan Thamrin, from 6 am to 11 am. The briefer Car-Free Day which lasts from only 6 am to 9 am is held on every other Sunday. The event invites local pedestrians to do sports and exercise and have their activities on the streets that are normally full of cars and traffic. Along the road from the Senayan traffic circle on Jalan Sudirman, South Jakarta, to the "Selamat Datang" Monument at the Hotel Indonesia traffic circle on Jalan Thamrin, all the way north to the National Monument in Central Jakarta, cars are cleared out for pedestrians. Morning gymnastics, calisthenics and aerobic exercises, futsal games, jogging, bicycling, skateboarding, badminton, karate, and on-street library and musical performances take over the roads and the main parks in Jakarta.
Jakarta is strained by transportation problems. The city suffers a lack of urban public transport services due to prioritized development of road networks, which were mostly designed to accommodate private vehicles. Most trips, however, are undertaken by non-motorized transportation (particularly walking) and numerous modes of public or demand-responsive transportation services.
|Transport mode||No. trips ('000)||% share|
|ojek (motorcycle taxi)||1,073||2.9|
|patas AC (bus)||422||1.1|
A structured road network had been developed in the early 19th century as a part of the Java Great Post Road by Daendels, which connects most major cities throughout Java. During the following decades, the road network was expanded to a great extent, although it could not keep up with the rapidly increasing numbers of motorized vehicles, resulting in highly congested traffic.
A notable feature of Jakarta's present road system is the toll road network. Composed of an inner and outer ring road and five toll roads radiating outwards, the network provides inner as well as outer city connections. The outer ring road is under construction, but it is largely in use. While 6 Jakarta Elevated Toll Roads are still in tender progress.
The five radiating toll roads are the:
- Prof. Dr. Sedyatmo Toll Road linking to Soekarno-Hatta International Airport
- Jakarta-Tangerang Toll Road linking to Tangerang and further to Merak in the west
- Jakarta-Serpong Toll Road linking to Serpong
- Jagorawi Toll Road linking to Bogor and Ciawi in the south
- Jakarta-Cikampek Toll Road linking to Bekasi and Cikampek in the east
Throughout the years, several attempts have been made to reduce traffic congestion on Jakarta’s main arteries. Implemented solutions include a 'three-in-one' rush-hour law, during which cars with fewer than three passengers are prohibited from driving on the main avenues. Another example is the ban on trucks passing main avenues during the day.
Public road transportation
In 1966, an estimated 160,000 pedicabs (becak) operated in the city; as much as 15% of Jakarta's total workforce was engaged in becak driving. In 1971, becak were banned from major roads, and shortly thereafter the government attempted a total ban, which substantially reduced their numbers but did not eliminate them. A campaign to eliminate them succeeded in 1990 and 1991, but during the economic crisis of 1998, some returned amid less effective government attempts to control them.
"Auto rickshaws", called bajaj, provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city. From the early 1940s to 1991 they were a common form of local transportation in the city.
The TransJakarta bus rapid transit service (known as Busway) was developed in the context of development reform (or reformasi) and used Bogota's TransMilenio system as a model. Jakarta's first busway line, from Blok M to Jakarta Kota opened in January 2004 and as of 28 December 2011, eleven out of fifteen corridors are in use.
The Kopaja and MetroMini economy minibus systems also provide important services for Jakarta commuters with numerous routes which criss cross the city.
Although ojeks are not an official form of public transport, they can be found throughout Indonesia and in Jakarta. They are especially useful on the crowded urban roads and narrow alleyways, which other vehicles cannot reach. In November 2011, Taxijek was launched in Jakarta. It is essentially a taxi, but with a motorcycle instead of an automobile. Besides a taximeter and the company's driver identity card, the passenger has access to a helmet, disposable shower caps to use underneath the helmet and an extra raincoat. Contrary to common ojeks, Taxijeks are allowed to enter gated communities and they usually charge a lower fare.
Electronic Road Pricing
Due to the city's acute gridlock, the Jakarta administration will implement Electronic Road Pricing in 10 districts: Tanah Abang, Menteng, Setiabudi, Tebet, Matraman, Senen, Gambir, Tambora, Sawah Besar and Taman Sari. The projects will initiate once it is approved by the Finance Ministry.
Long-distance railways and local tram services were first introduced during the Dutch colonial era. While the trams were replaced with buses in the post-colonial era, long-distance railways continued to connect the city to its neighboring regions as well as cities throughout Java. The surrounding cities of Jakarta are served by KRL Jabotabek, a mass rapid transit system which serves commuters both in and around Jakarta. The major rail stations are Gambir, Jakarta Kota, Jatinegara, Pasar Senen, Manggarai, and Tanah Abang. During rush hours, the number of passengers greatly exceeds the system's capacity, and crowding is common.
There had been plans for a monorail and part of it was already under construction, but the project stalled in 2004 and was officially abandoned as of 2008, mostly due to a lack of investors to fund it all. If completed, the monorail would have been made up of two lines: the green line serving Semanggi-Casablanca Road-Kuningan-Semanggi and the blue line serving Kampung Melayu-Casablanca Road-Tanah Abang-Roxy.
A two-line metro (MRT) system is proposed, with a north-south line between Kota and Lebak Bulus, without connections to the cancelled monorail lines; and an east-west line, which will connect to the north-south line at Sawah Besar Station. In the end the JMRT would be a combination of both subways and elevated rails. The metro system construction started in April 2012, with the first, 15.2 km-long line between Hotel Indonesia and Lebak Bulus, and the north-south line MRT network is scheduled to be operational by 2016. Jakarta Capital City Government had decided to build rail-based mass transits because this type of transport is capable of carrying passengers in large quantities quickly and cheaply.
Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK) is the main airport serving the greater Jakarta area. The airport is named after the first President of Indonesia, Soekarno, and the first vice-president, Mohammad Hatta. The airport is often called Cengkareng or Soetta by Indonesians. The airport's IATA code, CGK, originates from the name of the Cengkareng locality , a district situated to the northwest of the city. It is Indonesia's busiest airport handling over 50 million passengers annually. A second airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport (HLP) serves mostly private and VIP/presidential flights. Other airports in the Jabotabek metropolitan area include Pondok Cabe Airport and an airfield on Pulau Panjang, part of the Thousand Island archipelago.
On 6 June 2007, the city administration introduced the Waterway (officially Angkutan Sungai), a new river boat service along the Ciliwung River. However, because of the large amount of floating garbage which kept jamming the propeller, it is no longer in service. The varying water levels during the dry and wet seasons were also a contributing factor to the close-down.
Jakarta's main seaport Tanjung Priok serves many ferry connections to different parts of Indonesia. Tanjung Priok is the largest seaport in Indonesia, with an annual traffic capacity of around 45 million tonnes of cargo and 4,000,000 TEU's. The port is also an important employer in the area, with more than 18,000 employees who provide services to more than 18,000 ships every year. The Port of Jakarta has 20 terminals: general cargo, multipurpose terminal, scraps terminal, passenger terminal, dry bulk terminal, liquid bulk terminal, oil terminal, chemicals terminal and three container terminals, 76 berths, a quay length of 16,853 metres, a total storage area of 661,822 m2 and a storage capacity of 401,468 tonnes.
In December 2011, Muara Angke Port has been renovated yet with cost Rp130 billion ($14.4 million) in 3 hectares area. Next, Muara Angke Port will be used for public transport port to Thousand Islands, while Marina Ancol Port will be used as tourist ship port.
Jakarta is home to a number of universities, of which the University of Indonesia is the largest. It is a state-owned university with campuses in Salemba and Depok.
STOVIA (School tot Opleiding van Indische Artsen) was the first high school in Jakarta, established in 1851. As the largest city and the capital, Jakarta houses a large number of students from various parts of Indonesia, many of whom reside in dormitories or home-stay residences. For basic education, there are a variety of primary and secondary schools, tagged with public (national), private (national and bi-lingual national plus) and international schools. Four of the major international schools located in Jakarta are the Gandhi Memorial International School, IPEKA International Christian School, Jakarta International School and the British International School (BIS). Other international schools include the Jakarta International Korean School, Bina Bangsa School, Jakarta International Multicultural School, Australian International School, New Zealand International School, Singapore International School, and Sekolah Pelita Harapan
- "Travel Indonesia Guide – How to appreciate the ‘Big Durian’ Jakarta". Worldstepper-daworldisntenough.blogspot.com. 8 April 2008. http://worldstepper-daworldisntenough.blogspot.com/2008/04/go-jakarta-how-to-appreciate-big-durian.html. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Jumlah Penduduk Provinsi DKI Jakarta". Dinas Kependudukan dan Catatan Sipil. http://www.kependudukancapil.go.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4&Itemid=63. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Loughborough University. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
- Sensus Penduduk 2010. Biro Pusat Statistik
- "Foke lebih yakin lembaga survei asing". 24 April 2012. http://www.waspada.co.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=243533:foke-lebih-yakin-lembaga-survei-asing&catid=17:politik&Itemid=30.
- "Sojourn In The Big Durian". ThingsAsian. http://www.thingsasian.com/stories-photos/1532. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- Sundakala: cuplikan sejarah Sunda berdasarkan naskah-naskah "Panitia Wangsakerta" Cirebon. Yayasan Pustaka Jaya, Jakarta. 2005.
- Drs. R. Soekmono, (1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed.. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. page 60.
- Sumber-sumber asli sejarah Jakarta, Jilid I: Dokumen-dokumen sejarah Jakarta sampai dengan akhir abad ke-16. Cipta Loka Caraka. 1999.
- "History of Jakarta". BeritaJakarta. http://www.beritajakarta.com/english/AboutJakarta/HistoryofJakarta.asp.
- Ricklefs, M.C. (1993). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300 (2nd ed.). London: MacMillan. p. 29. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
- Heuken, Adolf (2000). Sumber-sumber asli sejarah Jakarta Jilid II: Dokumen-dokumen Sejarah Jakarta dari kedatangan kapal pertama Belanda (1596) sampai dengan tahun 1619 (Authentic sources of History of Jakarta part II: Documents of history of Jakarta from the first arrival of Dutch ship (1596) to year 1619). Jakarta: Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka.
- Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet Publications. pp. 138–139. ISBN 1-74059-154-2.
- Menteng : Pelopor Kota Taman, 3 November 2007
- Colonial Economy and Society, 1870–1940. Source: U.S. Library of Congress.
- Governance Failure: Rethinking the Institutional Dimensions of Urban Water Supply to Poor Households. ScienceDirect.
- Kusno, Abidin (2000). Behind the Postcolonial: Architecture, Urban Space and Political Cultures. New York City: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-23615-0.
- Schoppert, P.; Damais, S. (1997). Java Style. Paris: Didier Millet. ISBN 962-593-232-1.
- "Why ethnic Chinese are afraid". BBC News. 12 February 1998.
- "Jakarta". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9106450/Jakarta#13148.toc. Retrieved 17 September 2007.
- Douglas, M. (1989). "The Environmental Sustainability of Development. Coordination, Incentives and Political Will in Land Use Planning for the Jakarta Metropolis". Third World Planning Review 11 (2 pages=pp. 211–238).
- Douglas, M. (1992). "The Political Economy of Urban Poverty and Environmental Management in Asia: Access, Empowerment and Community-based Alternatives". Environment and Urbanization 4 (2): 9–32. doi:10.1177/095624789200400203.
- Turner, Peter (1997). Java (1st edition). Melbourne: Lonely Planet. p. 315. ISBN 0-86442-314-4.
- Sajor, Edsel E. (2003). "Globalization and the Urban Property Boom in Metro Cebu, Philippines". Development and Change 34 (4): 713–742. doi:10.1111/1467-7660.00325. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1467-7660.00325?cookieSet=1&journalCode=dech.
- Friend, Theodore (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard University Press. p. 329. ISBN 0-674-01137-6.
- Wages of Hatred. Michael Shari. Business Week.
- Friend, T. (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01137-6.
- Minggu, 19 Juli 2009 – 13:16 WIB. "Daftar Serangan Bom di Jakarta". Poskota. http://www.poskota.co.id/berita-terkini/2009/07/19/daftar-serangan-bom-di-jakarta. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Jakarta holds historic election". BBC News (BBC). 8 August 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/6936276.stm.
- "Central Jakarta Profile". The City Jakarta Administration. Jakarta.go.id. http://www.jakarta.go.id/en/pemerintahan/kotamadya/jakpus/default.asp. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
- "West Jakarta Profile". The City Jakarta Administration. Jakarta.go.id. http://www.jakarta.go.id/en/pemerintahan/kotamadya/jakbar/default.asp. Retrieved 24 February 2010.
- "South Jakarta Profile". The City Jakarta Administration. Jakarta.go.id. http://www.jakarta.go.id/en/pemerintahan/kotamadya/jaksel/. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
- "East Jakarta Profile". The City Jakarta Administration. Jakarta.go.id. http://www.jakarta.go.id/en/pemerintahan/kotamadya/jaktim/default.asp. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
- "North Jakarta Profile". The City Jakarta Administration. Jakarta.go.id. http://www.jakarta.go.id/en/pemerintahan/kotamadya/jakut/default.asp. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
- ""Thousand Island" Profile". The City Jakarta Administration. Jakarta.go.id. http://www.jakarta.go.id/en/pemerintahan/kotamadya/kepseribu. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
- Jakarta in Figures. Statistics DKI Jakarta Provincial Office, Jakarta. 2008.
- 'Taxpayer money for the city', The Jakarta Post, 16 July 2011.
- Andreas D. Arditya, '"Procurement failures" to blame for budget surplus', The Jakarta Post, 4 May 2012.
- Based on Governor Decree in 2007, No. 171. taken from Statistics DKI Jakarta Provincial Office, Jakarta in Figures, 2008, BPS, Province of DKI Jakarta
- "The Tides: Efforts Never End to Repel an Invading Sea". Jakarta Globe. http://thejakartaglobe.com/waterworries/the-tides-efforts-never-end-to-repel-an-invading-sea/320034. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Key to Jakarta's floods: Basin flood management". The Jakarta Post. 22 March 2008. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2008/03/22/key-jakarta039s-floods-basin-flood-management.html. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Asian News". Asiaviews. http://www.asiaviews.org/?content=153499ym32dddw4&headline=20070215014241. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Floods in DKI Jakarta Province, updated 19 February 2007 Emergency Situation Report No. 6". ReliefWeb. 19 February 2007. http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/VBOL-6YPCN6?OpenDocument.
- 1996 "2007 Global Register of Major Flood Events". Dartmouth Flood Observatory. Dartmouth College. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~floods/Archives/1996sum.htm 1996.
- "Asia". Bloomberg. 4 February 2007. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601080&sid=aEZkmZ6LCTrM. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- Three killed, 90,000 evacuated in Jakarta floods: officials – Yahoo! News[dead link]
- Disease fears as floods ravage Jakarta[dead link]
- Jakarta Flood Feb 2007 « (Geo) Information for All[dead link]
- 2007 Global Register of Major Flood Events, Dartmouth Flood Observatory, 1 May 2008
- Jakartans lament the sorry state of the capital’s rivers. The Jakarta Post, Jakarta. May, 20, 2011
- Minister: Jakarta East Flood Canal accomplished in 2011. Waspada.co.id (30 November 2010). Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- :: Wartakotalive.com | Berita : Kali Ciliwung Disodet. Wartakota.co.id (14 April 2010). Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "World Weather Information Service – Jakarta". June 2011. http://worldweather.wmo.int/043/c00310.htm.
- The Betawi – due to their diverse origins – play a major role concerning ethnic and national identity in contemporary Jakarta; see Knörr, Jacqueline: Kreolität und postkoloniale Gesellschaft. Integration und Differenzierung in Jakarta, Campus Verlag: Frankfurt a.M. & New York, 2007, ISBN 978-3-593-38344-6
- Knörr, Jacqueline (2007). Kreolität und postkoloniale Gesellschaft. Integration und Differenzierung in Jakarta. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag. ISBN 978-3-593-38344-6.
- Johnston, Tim (3 March 2005). "Chinese diaspora: Indonesia". BBC News (BBC). http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/4312805.stm.
- By A Yahoo! Contributor, 17 May 2009. "Haveli Indian Cuisine & Bar, Jakarta, Indonesia – Yahoo! Travel". Travel.yahoo.com. http://travel.yahoo.com/p-travelguide-2881278-haveli_indian_cuisine_bar_jakarta-i. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/6989211.stm; "Condemned Communities: Forced Evictions in Jakarta" Human Rights Watch Sep 2006.
- PALYJA. "Key Figures". http://en.palyja.co.id/profile/key-figures/. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Iwan, Renalia (November 2008). "Ten Years of Public Private Partnership in Jakarta Drinking Water Service (1998–2007) Eastern Jakarta Drinking Water Service by Thames PAM Jaya". Master Thesis. School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. pp. 42–44. http://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10063/978/thesis.pdf?sequence=1. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Karen Bakker, Michelle Kooy, Nur Endah Shofiani, and Ernst-Jan Martijn (2006). "Disconnected: Poverty, Water Supply and Development in Jakarta, Indonesia". Human Development Report 2006, Occasional Paper. UNDP. http://waterwiki.net/images/8/80/Poverty%2CWaterSupplyAndDevelopmentJakarta.pdf. Retrieved 20 November 2011. "quoting a Personal Communication from Kris Tutuko, Technical Director PAM JAYA, Jakarta, Indonesia"
- KRuHA People's coalition for the rights to water (7 June 2011). "Poor Water Service, Most of Jakarta People Threatened by E-Coli". http://www.kruha.org/page/en/dinamic_detil/50/194/Press_Releases/Poor_Water_Service__Most_of_Jakarta_People_Threatened_by_E_Coli.html. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "After census city plans for 9.5 million". Jakarta Pos
- BRT – CASE STUDY 5 – Annex 5 Case Studies and Lessons – Module 2: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): Toolkit for Feasibility Studies. Sti-india-uttoolkit.adb.org. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Publikasi Provinsi dan Kabupaten Hasil Sementara SP2010". Bps.go.id. http://www.bps.go.id/aboutus.php?hasilSP2010=1. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Tempo Interaktif: President’s Greater Jakarta Plan Criticized". Tempointeractive.com. 17 January 2011. http://www.tempointeractive.com/hg/nasional/2011/01/17/brk,20110117-306809,uk.html. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Jakarta Great Sale declared roaring success". The Jakarta Post. 15 July 2012. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2012/07/15/jakarta-great-sale-declared-roaring-success.html. Retrieved 21 July 2012. The city is filled with plenty of international brands with a very affordable price.
- "Jakarta Malls and Shopping Centers – luxury shopping in Jakarta, Indonesia". Expat.or.id. http://www.expat.or.id/info/jakartamallsshoppingcenters.html. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- Kompas.com Jalan Satrio Dijadikan "Shopping Belt" Jakarta
- "Taman Lapangan Banteng (Indonesian)". deskominfomas. Jakarta.go.id. http://www.jakarta.go.id/v70/index.php/en/taman-kota/523-taman-lapangan-banteng.[dead link]
- "Taman Suropati (Indonesian)". deskominfomas. Jakarta.go.id. http://www.jakarta.go.id/v70/index.php/en/taman-kota/529-taman-suropati.[dead link]
- "Taman Medan Merdeka (Indonesian)". Dartmouth deskominfomas. Jakarta.go.id. http://www.jakarta.go.id/v70/index.php/en/taman-kota/521-taman-medan-merdeka.[dead link]
- "Olympic Council of Asia : Games". Ocasia.org. http://www.ocasia.org/Game/GameParticular.aspx?GPCode=8. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Asian Cup 2007 Host nations". 11 September 2007. http://www.the-afc.com/en/previous-competitions/afc-asian-cup-2007/afc-asian-cup-2007-hosts.
- "Football stadiums of the world – Stadiums in Indonesia". Fussballtempel.net. http://www.fussballtempel.net/afc/IDN.html. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Car-Free Day reduces air pollution: Tests". 25 June 2008. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2008/06/25/carfree-day-reduces-air-pollution-tests.html.
- Williamson, Lucy (6 June 2007). "Jakarta begins river boat service". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6725843.stm.
- "Transportation Issues and Future Condition in Tokyo, Jakarta, Manila and Hiroshima" (PDF). http://www.easts.info/on-line/proceedings_05/2391.pdf. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- [Technical Report Table 1.3.2 of the Study on Integrated Transportation Master Plan for Jabodetabek (SITRAMP), undertaken by Pacific Consultants International and ALMEC Corporation on behalf of the Indonesian National Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), 2004],
- Technical Report Tables 1.3.2 of the Study on Integrated Transportation Master Plan for Jabodetabek (SITRAMP), undertaken by Pacific Consultants International and ALMEC Corporation on behalf of the Indonesian National Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), 2004.
- Azuma, Yoshifumi (2003). Urban peasants: beca drivers in Jakarta. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan.
- "Lo, Ria Hutabarat (2010). "The City as a Mirror: Transport, Land Use and Social Change in Jakarta" ''Urban Studies'' 47(3): 529–555". Usj.sagepub.com. http://usj.sagepub.com/. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Meet Taxijek: Motorcycle taxi with a meter". 22 February 2012. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2012/02/22/meet-taxijek-motorcycle-taxi-with-a-meter.html.
- "10 districts prepared for electronic road pricing policy trial run in Jakarta". 2 September 2011. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/09/02/10-districts-prepared-electronic-road-pricing-policy-trial-run-jakarta.html.
- "Kompas.com: Jakarta Monorail Project Still Uncertain". Properti.kompas.com. http://properti.kompas.com/read/2010/10/18/20303885/Proyek.Monorel.Jakarta.Masih.Terkatung.katung. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "City launches two busway routes". The Jakarta Post. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/01/02/city-launches-two-busway-routes.html. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Rail-based Transportation, Main Component of Metropolitan City". Berita Jakarta=16 June 2011. http://www.beritajakarta.com/2008/en/newsview.aspx?idwil=0&id=19300.
- "Tol Bandara". Poskotanews=12 January 2012. http://www.poskotanews.com/2012/01/12/tol-bandara-dijamin-tak-kebanjiran/.
- "Jakarta gets its first klong taxis". Bangkok Post. The Post Publishing Public Co. http://www.bangkokpost.net/breaking_news/breakingnews.php?id=119260.
- Port of Jakarta facilities
- "Pelabuhan Muara Angke Siap Digunakan". http://metropolitan.inilah.com/read/detail/1805915/pelabuhan-muara-angke-siap-digunakan. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
- "Profile | Universitas Indonesia". Ui.ac.id. http://www.ui.ac.id/en/profile/page/overview. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Print Artikel". Majalah-farmacia.com. http://www.majalah-farmacia.com/rubrik/one_news_print.asp?IDNews=754. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Jakarta International Multicultural School". Jimsch.org. http://www.jimsch.org/. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Welcome to Australian International School Indonesia". Ais-indonesia.com. http://www.ais-indonesia.com/. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Welcome to New Zealand International School". Nzis.net. http://www.nzis.net/. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- "Sekolah Pelita Harapan". Sph.edu. http://www.sph.edu/sph_edu/menu/index.php. Retrieved 14 March 2011.