Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཡུལ་; Wylie transliteration: ʼbrug-yul "Druk Yul"), officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked state in South Asia located at the eastern end of the Himalayas. It is bordered to the north by China and to the south, east and west by the Republic of India. Further west, it is separated from Nepal by the Indian state of Sikkim, while further south it is separated from Bangladesh by the Indian states of Assam and West Bengal. Bhutan's capital and largest city is Thimphu.
Bhutan existed as a patchwork of minor warring fiefdoms until the early 17th century, when the lama and military leader Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal, fleeing religious persecution in Tibet, unified the area and cultivated a distinct Bhutanese identity. Later, in the early 20th century, Bhutan came into contact with the British Empire and retained strong bilateral relations with India upon its independence. In 2006, based on a global survey, Business Week rated Bhutan the happiest country in Asia and the eighth-happiest in the world.
Bhutan's landscape ranges from subtropical plains in the south to the sub-alpine Himalayan heights in the north, where some peaks exceed 7,000 metres (23,000 ft). Its total area was reported as approximately 46,500 km2 (18,000 sq mi) in 1997 and 38,394 square kilometres (14,824 sq mi) in 2002. Bhutan's state religion is Vajrayana Buddhism and the population, now (as of 2012/2013) estimated to be nearly three-quarters of a million, is predominantly Buddhist. Hinduism is the second-largest religion.
In 2008, Bhutan made the transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy and held its first general election. As well as being a member of the United Nations, Bhutan is a member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and hosted SAARC's sixteenth summit in April 2010.
Names similar to Bhutan – including Bottanthis, Bottan and Bottanter – began to appear in Europe around the 1580s. Jean-Baptiste Tavernier's 1676 Six Voyages is the first to record the name Boutan. However, in every case, these seem to have been describing not modern Bhutan but the Kingdom of Tibet. The modern distinction between the two did not begin until well into Bogle's 1774 expedition—realizing the differences between the two regions, cultures, and states, his final report to the East India Company formally proposed labeling the Druk Desi's kingdom as "Boutan" and the Panchen Lama's as "Tibet". The EIC's surveyor general James Rennell first anglicized the French name as Bootan and then popularized the distinction between it and greater Tibet.
17771786Two of Rennell's EIC maps, showing the division of "Thibet or Bootan" into separate regions.
The precise etymology of "Bhutan" is unknown, although it is likely to derive from the Tibetan endonym "Bod" used for Greater Tibet. Traditionally, it is taken to be a transcription of the Sanskrit Bhoṭa-anta (भोट-अन्त, "end of Tibet"), a reference to Bhutan's position as the southern extremity of the Tibetan plateau and culture.
Locally, Bhutan has been known by many names. The earliest western records of Bhutan, the 1627 Relação of the Portuguese Jesuits Estêvão Cacella and João Cabral, records its name variously as Cambirasi (among the Koch Biharis), Potente, and Mon (an endonym for southern Tibet). The first time a separate Kingdom of Bhutan did appear on a western map, it did so under its local name as "Broukpa". Others including Lho Mon ("Dark Southland"), Lho Tsendenjong ("Southland of the Cypress"), Lhomen Khazhi ("Southland of the Four Approaches") and Lho Men Jong ("Southland of the Herbs).
Stone tools, weapons, elephants, and remnants of large stone structures provide evidence that Bhutan was inhabited as early as 2000 BC, although there are no existing records from that time. Historians have theorized that the state of Lhomon (literally, "southern darkness"), or Monyul ("Dark Land", a reference to the Monpa, the aboriginal peoples of Bhutan) may have existed between 500 BC and AD 600. The names Lhomon Tsendenjong (Sandalwood Country), and Lhomon Khashi, or Southern Mon (country of four approaches), have been found in ancient Bhutanese and Tibetan chronicles.
Buddhism was first introduced to Bhutan in the 7th century AD. Tibetan king Songtsän Gampo (reigned 627–49), a convert to Buddhism, who actually had extended the Tibetan Empire into Sikkim and Bhutan, ordered the construction of two Buddhist temples, at Bumthang in central Bhutan and at Kyichu (near Paro) in the Paro Valley. Buddhism was propagated in earnest in 746 under King Sindhu Rāja (also Künjom; Sendha Gyab; Chakhar Gyalpo), an exiled Indian king who had established a government in Bumthang at Chakhar Gutho Palace.:35 :13
Buddhist saint Padma Sambhava (also known as Guru Rinpoche) came to Bhutan in in 747. Much of early Bhutanese history is unclear because most of the records were destroyed when fire ravaged the ancient capital, Punakha, in 1827. By the 10th century, Bhutan's political development was heavily influenced by its religious history. Various sub-sects of Buddhism emerged which were patronized by the various Mongol warlords. After the decline of the Yuan Dynasty in the 14th century, these sub-sects vied with each other for supremacy in the political and religious landscape, eventually leading to the ascendancy of the Drukpa sub-sect by the 16th century.
A thrikheb (throne cover) from the 19th century. Throne covers were placed atop the temple cushions used by high lamas. The central circular swirling quadrune is the Gankyil in its mode as the "Four Joys".
Until the early 17th century, Bhutan existed as a patchwork of minor warring fiefdoms, when the area was unified by the Tibetan lama and military leader Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal who had fled religious persecution in Tibet. To defend the country against intermittent Tibetan forays, Namgyal built a network of impregnable dzong (fortresses), and promulgated the Tsa Yig, a code of law that helped to bring local lords under centralized control. Many such dzong still exist and are active centers of religion and district administration. Portuguese Jesuits Estêvão Cacella and João Cabral were the first recorded Europeans to visit Bhutan, on their way to Tibet. They met Ngawang Namgyal, presented him with firearms, gunpowder and a telescope, and offered him their services in the war against Tibet, but the Shabdrung declined the offer. After a stay of nearly eight months Cacella wrote a long letter from the Chagri Monastery reporting on his travels. This is a rare extant report of the Shabdrung. After Ngawang Namgyal's death in 1651, his passing was kept secret for 54 years; after a period of consolidation, Bhutan lapsed into internal conflict. In the year 1711 Bhutan went to war against the Mughal Empire and its Subedars, who restored Koch Bihar in the south. During the chaos that followed, the Tibetans unsuccessfully attacked Bhutan in 1714.
In the 18th century, the Bhutanese invaded and occupied the kingdom of Cooch Behar to the south. In 1772, Cooch Behar appealed to the British East India Company which assisted them in ousting the Bhutanese and later in attacking Bhutan itself in 1774. A peace treaty was signed in which Bhutan agreed to retreat to its pre-1730 borders. However, the peace was tenuous, and border skirmishes with the British were to continue for the next hundred years. The skirmishes eventually led to the Duar War (1864–65), a confrontation for control of the Bengal Duars. After Bhutan lost the war, the Treaty of Sinchula was signed between British India and Bhutan. As part of the war reparations, the Duars were ceded to the United Kingdom in exchange for a rent of Rs. 50,000. The treaty ended all hostilities between British India and Bhutan.
During the 1870s, power struggles between the rival valleys of Paro and Tongsa led to civil war in Bhutan, eventually leading to the ascendancy of Ugyen Wangchuck, the ponlop (governor) of Tongsa. From his power base in central Bhutan, Ugyen Wangchuck defeated his political enemies and united the country following several civil wars and rebellions during 1882–85.
In 1907, an epochal year for the country, Ugyen Wangchuck was unanimously chosen as the hereditary king of the country by an assembly of leading Buddhist monks, government officials, and heads of important families. The British government promptly recognized the new monarchy, and in 1910 Bhutan signed the Treaty of Punakha, a subsidiary alliance which gave the British control of Bhutan's foreign affairs and meant that Bhutan was treated as an Indian princely state. This had little real effect, given Bhutan's historical reticence, and also did not appear to affect Bhutan's traditional relations with Tibet. After the new Union of India gained independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947, Bhutan became one of the first countries to recognize India's independence. On 8 August 1949, a treaty similar to that of 1910, in which Britain had gained power over Bhutan's foreign relations, was signed with the newly independent India.
In 1953, King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck established the country's legislature – a 130-member National Assembly – to promote a more democratic form of governance. In 1965, he set up a Royal Advisory Council, and in 1968 he formed a Cabinet. In 1971, Bhutan was admitted to the United Nations, having held observer status for three years. In July 1972, Jigme Singye Wangchuck ascended to the throne at the age of sixteen after the death of his father, Dorji Wangchuck.
Political reform and modernization
King Jigme Singye Wangchuck introduced significant political reforms, transferring most of his administrative powers to the Council of Cabinet Ministers and allowing for impeachment of the King by a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly.
In 1999, the government lifted a ban on television and the Internet, making Bhutan one of the last countries to introduce television. In his speech, the King said that television was a critical step to the modernisation of Bhutan as well as a major contributor to the country's Gross National Happiness (Bhutan is the only country to measure happiness), but warned that the "misuse" of television could erode traditional Bhutanese values.
A new constitution was presented in early 2005. In December 2005, Jigme Singye Wangchuck announced that he would abdicate the throne in his son's favor in 2008. On 14 December 2006, he announced that he would be abdicating immediately. This was followed by the first national parliamentary elections in December 2007 and March 2008.
On November 6, 2008, 28-year-old Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, eldest son of King Jigme Singye Wangchuck, was crowned King.
Government and politics
Bhutan's political system has developed from an absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy. In 1999, the fourth king of Bhutan created a body called the Lhengye Zhungtshog (Council of Ministers). The Druk Gyalpo (King of Druk Yul) is head of state. Executive power is exercised by the Lhengye Zhungtshog, the council of ministers. Legislative power was vested in both the government and the former Grand National Assembly.
On the 17th of December 2005, the 4th King, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, announced to a stunned nation that the first general elections would be held in 2008 and that he would abdicate the throne in favor of his eldest son, the crown prince. King Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuck took the throne on December 14, 2006 upon his father's abdication. Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck was adorned with Bhutan's Raven Crown at an ornate coronation ceremony in Thimphu on Thursday, November 6, 2008, becoming the world's youngest reigning monarch and head of the newest democracy.
The new political system comprises an upper and lower house, the latter based on political party affiliations. Elections for the upper house (National Council) were held on December 31, 2007, while elections for the lower house, the 47-seat National Assembly, were held on March 24, 2008. Two political parties, the People's Democratic Party (PDP) headed by Sangay Ngedup, and the Druk Phuensum Tshogpa (DPT) headed by Jigmi Thinley, competed in the National Assembly election. The Druk Phuensum Tshogpa won the elections taking 45 out of 47 seats in the parliament.
Judicial power is vested in the courts of Bhutan. The Chief Justice is the administrative head of the Judiciary.
Bhutan has arrested peaceful pro-democracy demonstrators. The government blocked access to two Bhutanese news sites after these had criticized a cabinet minister who is the maternal uncle of the king. One of the sites is no longer active, the other was freed in 2007.[clarification needed]
Emigration is restricted, and those who leave the country without the knowledge and permission of the government risk having their citizenship revoked.
There are no associations even though associations are permitted by the law.[clarification needed]
Homosexuality is illegal, punishable by prison.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the country expelled or forced to leave nearly one-fifth of its population in the name of preserving its Tibetan Mahayana Buddhist culture and identity. The Lhotshampas, the ethnic group persecuted by the Bhutanese government, were subject to "harassment, arrests and the burning of ethnic Nepali homes." The government enacted discriminatory citizenship laws against the Lhotshampas, stripping about one-fifth of its population of citizenship. A harassment campaign escalating in the early 1990s ensued, and afterwards Bhutanese security forces began expelling people after making them renounce claims to their homes and homeland. A refugee recounted, “The army took all the people from their houses. As we left Bhutan, we were forced to sign the document. They snapped our photos. The man told me to smile, to show my teeth. He wanted to show that I was leaving my country willingly, happily, that I was not forced to leave.” Due to the violence, Bhutanese of Nepali origin, mainly Hindu, fled their homeland. According to the UNHCR, more than 107,000 Bhutanese refugees living in seven camps in eastern Nepal have been documented as of 2008. After many years in refugee camps, many are now moving to host nations such as Canada, Norway, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States as refugees. The United States has admitted 30,870 refugees from fiscal years 2008 through 2010. Still, in July 2010, the Bhutanese prime minister, Jigme Y. Thinley, called the Bhutanese refugees illegal immigrants.
The government does not permit citizenship for these Bhutanese, so most of them have become stateless refugee.  Excessive bureaucratic obstacles have been used to hinder their relatives from getting id cards and voting rights.
Bhutan considers the political parties of these refugees as illegal and terrorist in nature.
According to human rights organizations,[clarification needed] Bhutan violates human rights by forcing everyone, including minorities, to appear in the traditional dress of the ethnic majority in public spaces. The state also discriminates against the Nepalese minority in education, employment and land ownership.
Freedom of religion
According to NGOs, the government does not usually permit building non-Buddhist temples and favors majority Buddhism in many kinds of subsidies.
Traditional Buddhist or Hindu laws are used as family laws.
According to a report by the Centre for European Studies, Bhutan develops its happiness index and happiness policies to justify the discrimination of minorities and to cover the fact that the government has failed to increase the poor standard of living of the country.
Military and foreign affairs
The Royal Bhutan Army is Bhutan's military service. It includes the Royal Bodyguard and the Royal Bhutan Police. Membership is voluntary and the minimum age for recruitment is 18. The standing army numbers about 16,000 and is trained by the Indian Army. It has an annual budget of about $13.7 million (1.8 percent of GDP). Being a landlocked country, Bhutan has no navy. It also has no air force or army aviation corps. The Army relies on the Eastern Air Command of the Indian Air Force for air assistance.
In 2007, Bhutan and India signed a new treaty that clarified Bhutan's own control over its foreign relations. This superseded the treaty signed in 1949. The previous treaty is still sometimes taken to mean that India controls Bhutan's foreign affairs, but the government of Bhutan handles all of its own foreign affairs, including issues in which India has a vested interest, such as Bhutan's border with China.
Bhutan has diplomatic relations with 21 countries and the European Union and has missions in India, Bangladesh, Thailand and Kuwait. It has two UN missions, one in New York and one in Geneva. Only India and Bangladesh have residential embassies in Bhutan, while Thailand has a consulate office in Bhutan.
By a long-standing agreement, Indian and Bhutanese citizens may travel to each other's countries without the need for a passport or visa but only their national identity cards. Bhutanese citizens may also work in India without legal restriction. Bhutan does not have formal diplomatic ties with its northern neighbour, the People's Republic of China, although exchanges of visits at various levels between the two have significantly increased in recent times. The first bilateral agreement between China and Bhutan was signed in 1998 and Bhutan has also set up honorary consulates in Macau and Hong Kong. Bhutan's border with China is largely not demarcated and thus disputed in some places. Approximately 269 square kilometers remain under discussion between China and Bhutan.
On 13 November 2005, Chinese soldiers crossed into the disputed territories between China and Bhutan, and began building roads and bridges. Bhutanese Foreign Minister Khandu Wangchuk took up the matter with Chinese authorities after the issue was raised in the Bhutanese parliament. In response, Foreign Ministry spokesman Qin Gang of the People's Republic of China has said that the border remains in dispute and that the two sides are continuing to work for a peaceful and cordial resolution of the dispute. An Indian intelligence officer has said that a Chinese delegation in Bhutan told the Bhutanese that they were "overreacting." The Bhutanese newspaper Kuensel has said that China might use the roads to further Chinese claims along the border.
On 8 February 2007, the Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty was substantially revised. The Treaty of 1949, Article 2 states: "The Government of India undertakes to exercise no interference in the internal administration of Bhutan. On its part the Government of Bhutan agrees to be guided by the advice of the Government of India in regard to its external relations." In the revised treaty it now reads as "In keeping with the abiding ties of close friendship and cooperation between Bhutan and India, the Government of the Kingdom of Bhutan and the Government of the Republic of India shall cooperate closely with each other on issues relating to their national interests. Neither government shall allow the use of its territory for activities harmful to the national security and interest of the other." The revised treaty also includes this preamble: "Reaffirming their respect for each other's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity", an element that was absent in the earlier version. The Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty of 2007 clarifies Bhutan's status as an independent and sovereign nation.
Bhutan maintains formal diplomatic relations with several Asian and European nations, Canada, and Brazil. Other countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, have no formal diplomatic relations with Bhutan, but maintain informal contact through their respective embassies in New Delhi and Bhutanese honorary consulates in London and Washington, D.C.
Bhutan is located on the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas, landlocked between the Tibet Autonomous Region to the north and the Indian states of Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh to the west and south. It lies between latitudes 26° and 29°N, and longitudes 88° and 93°E. The land consists mostly of steep and high mountains crisscrossed by a network of swift rivers, which form deep valleys before draining into the Indian plains. Elevation rises from 200 m (660 ft) in the southern foothills to more than 7,000 m (23,000 ft). This great geographical diversity combined with equally diverse climate conditions contributes to Bhutan's outstanding range of biodiversity and ecosystems.
The northern region of the country consists of an arc of Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows reaching up to glaciated mountain peaks with an extremely cold climate at the highest elevations. Most peaks in the north are over 7,000 m (23,000 ft) above sea level; the highest point in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum at 7,570 metres (24,840 ft), which has the distinction of being the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The lowest point, at 98 m (322 ft), is in the valley of Drangme Chhu, where the river crosses the border with India. Watered by snow-fed rivers, alpine valleys in this region provide pasture for livestock, tended by a sparse population of migratory shepherds.
The Black Mountains in the central region of Bhutan form a watershed between two major river systems: the Mo Chhu and the Drangme Chhu. Peaks in the Black Mountains range between 1,500 and 2,700 m (4,900 and 8,900 ft) above sea level, and fast-flowing rivers have carved out deep gorges in the lower mountain areas. The forests of the central Bhutan mountains consist of Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests in higher elevations and Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests in lower elevations. Woodlands of the central region provide most of Bhutan's forest production. The Torsa, Raidak, Sankosh, and Manas are the main rivers of Bhutan, flowing through this region. Most of the population lives in the central highlands.
In the south, the Shiwalik Hills are covered with dense Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests, alluvial lowland river valleys, and mountains up to around 1,500 m (4,900 ft) above sea level. The foothills descend into the subtropical Duars Plain. Most of the Duars is located in India, although a 10 to 15 km (6.2 to 9.3 mi) wide strip extends into Bhutan. The Bhutan Duars is divided into two parts: the northern and the southern Duars. The northern Duars, which abuts the Himalayan foothills, has rugged, sloping terrain and dry, porous soil with dense vegetation and abundant wildlife. The southern Duars has moderately fertile soil, heavy savannah grass, dense, mixed jungle, and freshwater springs. Mountain rivers, fed by either the melting snow or the monsoon rains, empty into the Brahmaputra River in India. Data released by the Ministry of Agriculture showed that the country had a forest cover of 64% as of October 2005.
The climate in Bhutan varies with elevation, from subtropical in the south to temperate in the highlands and polar-type climate, with year-round snow in the north. Bhutan experiences five distinct seasons: summer, monsoon, autumn, winter and spring. Western Bhutan has the heavier monsoon rains; southern Bhutan has hot humid summers and cool winters; central and eastern Bhutan is temperate and drier than the west with warm summers and cool winters.
More than 770 species of bird and 5,400 species of plants are known to occur throughout the kingdom. Bhutan has a rich primate life with rare species such as the golden langur. Recently, a variant Assamese macaque, which is also regarded by some authorities as a new species, Macaca munzala has also been recorded.
The Bengal tiger, Greater One-horned Rhinoceros, clouded leopard, hispid hare and the sloth bear live in the lush tropical lowland and hardwood forests in the south. In the temperate zone, grey langur, tiger, Indian leopard, goral and serow are found in mixed conifer, broadleaf and pine forests. Fruit bearing trees and bamboo provide habitat for the Himalayan black bear, red panda, squirrel, sambar, wild pig and barking deer. The alpine habitats of the great Himalayan range in the north are home to the snow leopard, blue sheep, marmot, Tibetan wolf, antelope, Himalayan musk deer and the takin, Bhutan's national animal. The endangered Wild Water Buffalo occurs in southern Bhutan although in small numbers.
Among birds, the globally endangered White-winged Wood Duck has been added recently to the list of Bhutan's avifauna.
The Eastern Himalayas have been identified as a global biodiversity hotspot and counted among the 234 globally outstanding ecoregions of the world in a comprehensive analysis of global biodiversity undertaken by WWF between 1995 and 1997.
Bhutan is seen as a model for proactive conservation initiatives. The Kingdom has received international acclaim for its commitment to the maintenance of its biodiversity. This is reflected in the decision to maintain at least sixty percent of the land area under forest cover, to designate more than 40% of its territory as national parks, reserves and other protected areas, and most recently to identify a further nine percent of land area as biodiversity corridors linking the protected areas. Environmental conservation has been placed at the core of the nation's development strategy, the middle path. It is not treated as a sector but rather as a set of concerns that must be mainstreamed in Bhutan's overall approach to development planning and to be buttressed by the force of law.
As of 2010, the most endangered Asian top predator is the dhole. Fewer than 2,500 are believed to remain in the world.
Although Bhutan's natural heritage is still largely intact, the Government has said that it cannot be taken for granted and that conservation of the natural environment must be considered one of the challenges that will need to be addressed in the years ahead.
Pressures on the natural environment are already evident and will be fuelled by a complex array of forces. They include population pressures, agricultural modernisation, poaching, hydro-power development, mineral extraction, industrialisation, urbanisation, sewage and waste disposal, tourism, competition for available land road construction and the provision of other physical infrastructure associated with social and economic development.
Policy implementation needs to be continually improved. Sustainable rural livelihoods that do not rely solely upon natural resource use need to be developed and supported, and there needs to be far wider understanding of the environmental threats that come hand in hand with development, to ensure the future of Bhutan's rich and diverse environment.
In practice, the overlap of these extensive protected lands with populated areas has led to mutual habitat encroachment. Protected wildlife has entered agricultural areas, trampling crops and killing livestock. In response, Bhutan has implemented an insurance scheme, begun constructing solar powered alarm fences, watch towers, and search lights, and has provided fodder and salt licks outside human settlement areas to encourage animals to stay away.
Bhutan's currency is the ngultrum, whose value is fixed to the Indian rupee. The rupee is also accepted as legal tender in the country.
Though Bhutan's economy is one of the world's smallest, it has grown rapidly in recent years, by eight percent in 2005 and 14 percent in 2006. In 2007, Bhutan had the second fastest growing economy in the world, with an annual economic growth rate of 22.4 percent. This was mainly due to the commissioning of the gigantic Tala Hydroelectricity project. As of March 2006, Bhutan's per capita income was US$1,321.
Bhutan's economy is based on agriculture, forestry, tourism and the sale of hydroelectric power to India. Agriculture provides the main livelihood for more than 80 percent of the population. Agrarian practices consist largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Handicrafts, particularly weaving and the manufacture of religious art for home altars, are a small cottage industry. A landscape that varies from hilly to ruggedly mountainous has made the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. This, and a lack of access to the sea, has meant that Bhutan has not been able to benefit from significant trading of its produce. Bhutan does not have any railways, though Indian Railways plans to link southern Bhutan to its vast network under an agreement signed in January 2005. Bhutan and India signed a 'free trade' accord in 2008, which additionally allowed Bhutanese imports and exports from third markets to transit India without tariffs. Bhutan had trade relations with the Tibet region until 1960, when it closed its border with China after an influx of refugees.
The industrial sector is in a nascent stage, and though most production comes from cottage industry, larger industries are being encouraged and some industries such as cement, steel, and ferroalloy have been set up. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian contract labour. Agricultural produce includes rice, chilies, dairy (some yak, mostly cow) products, buckwheat, barley, root crops, apples, and citrus and maize at lower elevations. Industries include cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages and calcium carbide.
Incomes of over Nu 100,000 per annum are taxed, but very few wage and salary earners qualify. Bhutan's inflation rate was estimated at about three percent in 2003. Bhutan has a Gross Domestic Product of around USD 2.913 billion (adjusted to Purchasing Power Parity), making it the 162nd largest economy in the world. Per capita income is around $1,400, ranked 124th. Government revenues total $272 million, though expenditures amount to $350 million. 60 percent of the budget expenditure, however, is financed by India's Ministry of External Affairs.[note 1] Bhutan's exports, principally electricity, cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones and spices, total €128 million (2000 est.). Imports, however, amount to €164 million, leading to a trade deficit. Main items imported include fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery, vehicles, fabrics and rice. Bhutan's main export partner is India, accounting for 58.6 percent of its export goods. Hong Kong (30.1 percent) and Bangladesh (7.3 percent) are the other two top export partners. As its border with Tibet is closed, trade between Bhutan and China is now almost non-existent. Bhutan's import partners include India (74.5 percent), Japan (7.4 percent) and Sweden (3.2 percent).
Bhutan is divided into twenty dzongkhags (districts), administered by a body called the Dzongkhag Tshogdu. In certain thromdes (urban municipalities), a further municipal administration is directly subordinate to the Dzongkhag administration. In the vast majority of constituencies, rural gewogs (village blocks) are administered by bodies called the Gewog Tshogde.
Thromdes (municipalities) elect Thrompons to lead administration, who in turn represent the Thromde in the Dzongkhag Tshogdu. Likewise, gewogs elect headmen called gups, vice-headmen called mangmis, who also sit on the Dzongkhag Thshogdu, as well as other members of the Gewog Tshogde. The basis of electoral constituencies in Bhutan is the chiwog, a subdivision of gewogs delineated by the Election Commission.
- Chukha (Chhukha)
- Pemagatshel (Pemagatsel)
- Samdrup Jongkhar
- Samtse (Samchi)
- Sarpang (Sarbhang)
- Trashigang (Tashigang)
- Trongsa (Tongsa)
- Tsirang (Chirang)
- Wangdue Phodrang (Wangdi Phodrang)
- Zhemgang (Shemgang)
Cities and towns
- Thimphu, the largest city and capital of Bhutan.
- Damphu, the administrative headquarters of Tsirang District.
- Jakar, the administrative headquarters of Bumthang District and the place where Buddhism entered Bhutan.
- Mongar, the eastern commercial hub of the country.
- Paro, site of the international airport.
- Phuentsholing, Bhutan's commercial hub.
- Punakha, the old capital.
- Samdrup Jongkhar The south eastern town on the border with India.
- Trashigang, administrative headquarters of Trashigang District the most populous district in the country.
- Trongsa, in central Bhutan which has the largest and the most magnificent of all the dzongs in Bhutan.
Bhutanese people primarily consist of the Ngalops and Sharchops, called the Western Bhutanese and Eastern Bhutanese respectively. The Lhotshampa, meaning "southerners", are a heterogeneous group of mostly Nepalese descent. The Ngalops primarily consist of Bhutanese living in the western part of the country. Their culture is closely related to that of Tibet. Much the same could be said of the Sharchops, the dominant group, who traditionally follow the Nyingmapa rather than the official Drukpa Kagyu form of Tibetan Buddhism. In modern times, with improved transportation infrastructure, there has been much intermarriage between these groups. In the early 1970s, intermarriage between the Lhotshampas and mainstream Bhutanese society was encouraged by the government, but after the late 1980s, the Bhutanese government forced about 108,000 Lhotshampas from their homes, seized their land, and expelled them to refugee camps.
The literacy rate in Bhutan is 59.5 percent. The country has a median age of 24.8 years. Bhutan has a life expectancy of 62.2 years (61 for males and 64.5 for females) according to the latest data from the World Bank. There are 1,070 males to every 1,000 females in the country.
|Religions of Bhutan|
It is estimated that between two-thirds and three-quarters of the Bhutanese population follow Vajrayana Buddhism, which is also the state religion. About one-quarter to one-third are followers of Hinduism. Other religions account for less than 1% of the population. The current legal framework, in principle guarantees freedom of religion; proselytism, however, is forbidden by a royal government decision and by judicial interpretation of the Constitution.
Buddhism was introduced to Bhutan in the 7th century AD. Tibetan king Songtsän Gampo (reigned 627–49), a convert to Buddhism, ordered the construction of two Buddhist temples, at Bumthang in central Bhutan and at Kyichu (near Paro) in the Paro Valley.
The national language is Bhutanese (Dzongkha), one of 53 languages in the Tibetan language family. The script, here called Chhokey ("Dharma Language"), is identical to classical Tibetan. In the schools English is the medium of instruction and Dzongkha is taught as the national language. Ethnologue lists 24 languages currently spoken in Bhutan, all of them in the Tibeto-Burman family, except Nepali, an Indo-Aryan language. Until the 1980s, the government sponsored the teaching of Nepali in schools in Southern Bhutan. However, after the armed uprising in the south, Nepali was dropped from the curriculum. The languages of Bhutan are still not well-characterized, and several have yet to be recorded in an in-depth academic grammar. Before the 1980s, the Lhotshampa (Nepali-speaking community), mainly based in southern Bhutan, constituted approximately 30% of the population. However, during the 1980s, after the Bhutanese government instituted a policy of one language and one culture, these Lhotshampas were forced to wear the national costume of Bhutan, which is not well-suited to the high temperatures of the southern region. This cultural discrimination led to protests which eventually resulted in the eviction of more than 100,000 Lhotshampas throughout the 1990s. These Lhotshampas took refuge in Nepal via India. Because the bilateral talks between Nepal and Bhutan to repatriate Bhutanese refugees (Lhotshampas) have been proven futile, the UNHCR is now helping the refugees to settle in various developed countries such as Norway, USA, Canada and many others.
Dzongkha is partially intelligible with Sikkimese and spoken natively by 25% of the population. Tshangla, the language of the Sharchop and the principal pre-Tibetan language of Bhutan, is spoken by a greater number of people. It is not easily classified and may constitute an independent branch of Tibeto-Burman. Nepali speakers constituted some 40% of the population as of 2006. The larger minority languages are Dzala (11%), Limbu (10%, immigrant), and Kheng (8%). There are no reliable sources for the ethnic or linguistic composition of Bhutan, so these numbers do not add up to 100%.
Bhutanese thanka of Mt. Meru and the Buddhist universe (19th century, Tongsa Dzong, Tongsa, Bhutan).
Bhutan has a rich and unique cultural heritage that has largely remained intact because of its isolation from the rest of the world until the early 1960s. One of the main attractions for tourists is the country's culture and traditions. Bhutanese tradition is deeply steeped in its Buddhist heritage. Hinduism is the second dominant religion in Bhutan, being most prevalent in the southern regions. The government is increasingly making efforts to preserve and sustain the current culture and traditions of the country. Because of its largely unspoiled natural environment and cultural heritage, Bhutan has been referred to as The Last Shangri-la.
While Bhutanese citizens are free to travel abroad, Bhutan is viewed as inaccessible by many foreigners. Another reason for it being an unpopular destination is the cost, which is high for tourists on tighter budgets. Entry is free for citizens of India and Bangladesh, but all other foreigners are required to sign up with a Bhutanese tour operator and pay around US$250 per day that they stay in the country.
The national dress for Bhutanese men is the gho, a knee-length robe tied at the waist by a cloth belt known as the kera. Women wear an ankle-length dress, the kira, which is clipped at one shoulder and tied at the waist. An accompaniment to the kira is a long-sleeved blouse, the toego, which is worn underneath the outer layer. Social status and class determine the texture, colours, and decorations that embellish the garments. Differently coloured scarves and shawls are important indicators of social standing, as Bhutan has traditionally been a feudal society. Jewellery is mostly worn by women, especially during religious festivals (tsechus) and public gatherings. To strengthen Bhutan's identity as an independent country, Bhutanese law requires all Bhutanese citizens to wear the national dress in public areas and as formal wear.
Rice, buckwheat, and increasingly maize, are the staples of Bhutanese cuisine. The local diet also includes pork, beef, yak meat, chicken, and mutton. Soups and stews of meat and dried vegetables spiced with chillies and cheese are prepared. Ema datshi, made very spicy with cheese and chilies, might be called the national dish for its ubiquity and the pride that Bhutanese have for it. Dairy foods, particularly butter and cheese from yaks and cows, are also popular, and indeed almost all milk is turned to butter and cheese. Popular beverages include butter tea, tea, locally brewed ara (rice wine) and beer. Bhutan is the first country in the world to have banned the sale of tobacco under its Tobacco Act of 2010.
Bhutanese architecture remains distinctively traditional, employing rammed earth and wattle and daub construction methods, stone masonry, and intricate woodwork around windows and roofs. Traditional architecture uses no nails or iron bars in construction. Characteristic of the region is a type of castle fortress known as the dzong. Since ancient times, the dzongs have served as the religious and secular administration centres for their respective districts. The University of Texas at El Paso in the United States has adopted Bhutanese architecture for its buildings on campus, as have the nearby Hilton Garden Inn and other buildings in the city of El Paso.
Bhutan has numerous public holidays, most of which centre around traditional seasonal, secular and religious festivals. They include the winter solstice (around January 1, depending on the lunar calendar), the lunar New Year (February or March), the King's birthday and the anniversary of his coronation, the official end of monsoon season (September 22), National Day (December 17), and various Buddhist and Hindu celebrations.
Masked dances and dance dramas are common traditional features at festivals, usually accompanied by traditional music. Energetic dancers, wearing colourful wooden or composition face masks and stylized costumes, depict heroes, demons, dæmons, death heads, animals, gods, and caricatures of common people. The dancers enjoy royal patronage, and preserve ancient folk and religious customs and perpetuate the ancient lore and art of mask-making.
The music of Bhutan can generally be divided into traditional and modern varieties; traditional music comprises religious and folk genres, the latter including zhungdra and boedra. The modern rigsar is played on a mix of traditional instruments and electronic keyboards, and dates back to the early 1990s; it shows the influence of Indian popular music, a hybrid form of traditional and Western popular influences.
In Bhutanese families, inheritance generally passes through the female rather than the male line. Daughters will inherit their parents' house. A man is expected to make his own way in the world and often moves to his wife's home. Love marriages are common in urban areas, but the tradition of arranged marriages is still common in the villages. Although uncommon, polygamy is accepted, often being a device to keep property in a contained family unit rather than dispersing it. The previous king, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, who abdicated in 2006, had four queens, all of whom are sisters. The current king, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, wed Jetsun Pema, 21, a commoner and daughter of a pilot, on 13 October 2011.
Bhutan's national sport is archery, and competitions are held regularly in most villages. It differs from Olympic standards in technical details such as the placement of the targets and atmosphere. There are two targets placed over 100 meters apart and teams shoot from one end of the field to the other. Each member of the team shoots two arrows per round. Traditional Bhutanese archery is a social event and competitions are organized between villages, towns, and amateur teams. There are usually plenty of food and drink complete with singing and dancing. Attempts to distract an opponent include standing around the target and making fun of the shooter's ability. Darts (khuru) is an equally popular outdoor team sport, in which heavy wooden darts pointed with a 10 cm nail are thrown at a paperback-sized target 10 to 20 meters away.
Another traditional sport is the Digor, which resembles the shot put and horseshoe throwing. Cricket has gained popularity in Bhutan, particularly since the introduction of television channels from India. The Bhutan national cricket team is one of the more successful affiliate nations in the region. Football is also an increasingly popular sport. In 2002, Bhutan's national football team played Montserrat, in what was billed as The Other Final; the match took place on the same day Brazil played Germany in the World Cup final, but at the time Bhutan and Montserrat were the world's two lowest ranked teams. The match was held in Thimphu's Changlimithang National Stadium, and Bhutan won 4–0. A documentary of the match was made by the Dutch filmmaker Johan Kramer.
Bhutan has one decentralized university with eleven constituent colleges spread across the kingdom, the Royal University of Bhutan.
Traffic and transport
Paro Airport is the only international airport in Bhutan. Yongphulla Airport in Trashigang is a small domestic airport that underwent upgrades through 2010. Yongphulla Airport was scheduled for completion in January 2010, but as of August 2011 work is still ongoing. There are plans for further domestic airports to be built at Bathpalathang in Bumthang District and at Gelephu in Sarpang District, which were due to start operations in June 2011.
Bhutan does not have any railways, though it has entered into an agreement with India to link southern Bhutan to India's vast network by constructing a 11-mile (18 km)-long 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge rail link between Hashimara in West Bengal and Toribari in Bhutan. The construction of the railway via through Satali, Bharna Bari and Dalsingpara by Indian railways is being funded by India.
The Lateral Road is Bhutan's primary east–west corridor, connecting Phuentsholing in the southwest to Trashigang in the east. In between, the Lateral Road runs directly through Wangdue Phodrang, Trongsa, and other population centers. The Lateral Road also has spurs connecting to the capital Thimphu and other major population centers such as Paro and Punakha. As with other roads in Bhutan, the Lateral Road presents serious safety concerns due to pavement conditions, sheer drops, hairpin turns, weather, and landslides.
- Osmani, Siddiqur R.; Bajracharya, B.B.; Tenzing, S.; Wangyal, T. (2007) (PDF). Macroeconomics of Poverty Reduction: The Case Study of Bhutan (2 ed.). Colombo: UNDP. p. 302. ISBN 978-955-1416-00-3. http://www.bt.undp.org/assets/files/publication/Macroeco_cs_for_Bhutan.pdf.
- Wangchhuk, Lily (2008). Facts About Bhutan: The Land of the Thunder Dragon. Thimphu: Absolute Bhutan Books. ISBN 99936-760-0-4.
- "A Hidden and Mysterious Kingdom". Toplum Postasi. http://www.toplumpostasi.net/index.php/cat/9/col/85/art/1026/PageName/English. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
- Revkin, Andrew C. (2005-10-04). "A New Measure of Well-Being From a Happy Little Kingdom". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/04/science/04happ.html?ex=1129089600&en=de859301f49c121d&ei=5070&emc=eta1. Retrieved 2005-10-04.
- "Border tension pushes MEA allocation". The Tribune, Chandigarh. Archived from the original on 22 July 2005. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2002/20020301/budget.htm. Retrieved 2005-09-08.
- "Bhutan". Bhutan. MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQ2kjMZ. Retrieved 2005-09-08.
- "Bhutan-China Relations". Bhutan News Online. http://www.bhutannewsonline.com/bhutan_china.html. Retrieved 2005-09-08.
- "BTI 2008 — Bhutan Country Report". Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung. 2007. http://www.bertelsmann-transformation-index.de/index.php?id=1393&tt_news=&type=98&L=1. Retrieved 2008-12-11.— PDF version
- A.P. Agarwala (2003). Sikkim and Bhutan. Nest and Wings. ISBN 81-7824-008-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=Xnw-2sU1KMoC. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Datta-Ray, Sunanda K. (1984). Smash and Grab: The Annexation of Sikkim. Vikas. ISBN 0-7069-2509-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=RCMuAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Foning, A.R. (1987). Lepcha, My Vanishing Tribe. Sterling Publishers. ISBN 81-207-0685-4.
- Rose, Leo. The Nepali Ethnic Community in the Northeast of the Subcontinent. University of California, Berkeley.
- Napoli, Lisa (2011). Radio Shangri-La: What I Learned in Bhutan, the Happiest Kingdom on Earth. Crown. ISBN 0-307-45302-2.
- India's Ministry of External Affairs provides financial aid to neighbouring countries under "technical and economic cooperation with other countries and advances to foreign governments."
- "9th Five Year Plan (2002–2007)". Royal Government of Bhutan. 2002. http://www.gnhc.gov.bt/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/5yp09_main.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-22.
- "National Portal of Bhutan". Department of Information Technology, Bhutan. http://www.bhutan.gov.bt/government/aboutbhutan.php. Retrieved 2011-08-22.
- "Bhutan Population clock". Countrymeters.info. 2012. http://countrymeters.info/en/Bhutan. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- "Population and Housing Census of Bhutan — 2005" (PPT). UN. 2005. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/meetings/wshops/Thailand_15Oct07/docs/Countries_presentations/Bhutan_Results.ppt. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
- "Bhutan". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=514&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=56&pr.y=0. Retrieved 2012-04-17.
- "Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G" (PDF). United Nations. 2009. Archived from the original on 22 November 2009. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- "Treaty Bodies Database – Document – Summary Record – Bhutan". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR). 2001-06-05. http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/073f330f9a61c6b0c1256aca004f2ea8?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "World Population Prospects". United Nations. 2008. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. http://esa.un.org/unpp. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
- "The World's Happiest Countries". Business Week. 2006-10-11. Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. http://images.businessweek.com/ss/06/10/happiest_countries/index_01.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "8th Five Year Plan (1997–2002)" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 1997. http://www.gnhc.gov.bt/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/08fyp.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-22.
- "Bhutan." World Almanac & Book Of Facts (2008): 752-753. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Dec. 2011.
- "History of Bhutan: How Europe heard about Bhutan". Kuensel. 24 August 2003. Accessed 28 Sept 2011.
- Chakravarti, Balaram (1979). A Cultural History of Bhutan. 1. Hilltop. p. 7. http://books.google.com/books?id=6VxuAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Taylor, Isaac. Names and Their Histories; a Handbook of Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature. Gale Research Co. (Detroit), 1898. Accessed 24 September 2011.
- Cacella, Estêvão. Trans. by Baillie, Luiza Maria. "Report which Father Estevao Cacella of the Society of Jesus Sent to Father Alberto Laercio, Provincial of the Province of Malabar of East India, about His Journey to Cathay, until He Came to the Kingdom of Bhotanta" (1627). Accessed 28 September 2011.
- Grange, Kevin (2011). Beneath Blossom Rain: Discovering Bhutan on the Toughest Trek in the World. Outdoor Lives. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-3433-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=bWco7DY94fsC. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Clements, William M. (2006). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife: Southeast Asia and India, Central and East Asia, Middle East. 2. Greenwood Press. p. 105. ISBN 0-313-32849-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZvrWAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- "Bhutan". World Institute for Asian Studies. 2006-08-21. http://www.worldinstituteforasianstudies.org/buthan.html. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- Worden, Robert L. "Origins and Early Settlement, A.D. 600–1600". Bhutan: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Library of Congress Federal Research Division. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Padel, Ruth (2006). Tigers in Red Weather: a Quest for the Last Wild Tigers. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. pp. 139–40. ISBN 0-8027-1544-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=zYLJp0X04mUC. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- Sailen Debnath, Essays on Cultural History of North Bengal, ISBN 9788186860427; & Sailen Debnath, The Dooars in Historical Transition, ISBN 9788186860441
- Worden, Robert L. "Arrival of Buddhism". Bhutan: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Library of Congress Federal Research Division. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Hattaway, Paul (2004). Peoples of the Buddhist World: a Christian Prayer Diary. William Carey Library. p. 30. ISBN 0-87808-361-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=OzEOKNPsv2EC. Retrieved 2011-08-20.
- Rennie, Frank; Mason, Robin (2008). Bhutan: Ways of Knowing. IAP. pp. 18, 58. ISBN 1-59311-734-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=sHAnAtNrUQoC. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
- Dorji, C. T. (1994). History of Bhutan Based on Buddhism. Sangay Xam, Prominent Publishers. ISBN 81-86239-01-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=yA9uAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
- Harding, Sarah, ed. (2003). The Life and Revelations of Pema Lingpa. Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-194-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=rlxdncBwpbgC. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
- Dorji, Kinley (2005-03-30). "Taktshang: a Buddhist Legend". Buddhist Channel. Kuensel online. http://www.buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=18,963,0,0,1,0. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- Worden, Robert L. "Rivalry among the Sects". Bhutan: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Library of Congress Federal Research Division. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Brown, Lindsay; Armington, Stan (2007). Bhutan. Country Guides (3 ed.). Lonely Planet. pp. 26, 36. ISBN 1-74059-529-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=s-L8NUlW_QgC. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
- Pomplun, Trent (2009). Jesuit on the Roof of the World: Ippolito Desideri's Mission to Eighteenth-Century Tibet. Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 0-19-537786-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=-3iG4p85PHgC. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
- Worden, Robert L. "Administrative Integration and Conflict with Tibet, 1651–1728". Bhutan: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Library of Congress Federal Research Division. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Worden, Robert L. "British Intrusion, 1772–1907". Bhutan: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Library of Congress Federal Research Division. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Hoffman, Klus (2006-04-01). "Democratization from Above: The Case of Bhutan" (PDF). http://www.democracy-international.org/fileadmin/di/pdf/papers/di-bhutan.pdf. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
- Larmer, Brook (March 2008). "Bhutan's Enlightened Experiment". ngm.nationalgeographic.com. ISSN 0027-9358. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/03/bhutan/larmer-text/2. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
- Scott-Clark, Cathy; Levy, Adrian (2003-06-14). "Fast Forward into Trouble". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/weekend/story/0,3605,975769,00.html. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Kaul, Nitasha (2008-11-10). "Bhutan Crowns a Jewel". UPI Asia. United Press International. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. http://www.upiasia.com/Politics/2008/11/10/bhutan_crowns_a_jewel/1962. Retrieved 2011-06-19.
- Gelay Jamtsho; Keys to Bhutan (2008-10-31). "His Majesty the King's Historic National Day Address – 2005". Keystobhutan.com. http://www.keystobhutan.com/bhutan/bhutan_king_speech.php. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "Bhutan King to be Crowned at Last". BBC News online. 2008-07-23. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7521429.stm. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Sharma, Aradhana (2008-03-25). "Royalist Party Wins Election in Bhutan". NDTV.com. http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20080044949&ch=3/25/2008%2012:28:00%20AM. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- 2008 Human Rights Report: Bhutan, U.S. Department of State, February 25, 2009
- "Family Portrait of Bhutan Nepalis in USA". The Week Republica. 2011-04-15. Archived from the original on 2011-05-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20110511104731/http://theweek.myrepublica.com/details.php?news_id=30312. Retrieved 2011-04-19.
- Frelick, Bill. For Bhutan's Refugees, There's no Place Like Home. Human Rights Watch. Mar 3 2011. Web. Dec 30 2011. http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/03/30/bhutan-s-refugees-there-s-no-place-home
- "Bhutan's ethnic cleansing | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. 2008-02-02. http://www.hrw.org/news/2008/01/31/bhutans-ethnic-cleansing. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
- "Refugees from Bhutan Poised for New Start". UNHCR. 2008-02-01. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/search?page=search&docid=47a30dc82&query=bhutan. Retrieved 2011-04-19.
- Reguee Arrival Data. US Department of Health and Human Services. November 3, 2011. Web. December 30 2011. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/data/refugee_arrival_data.htm
- Frelick, Bill. For Bhutan's Refugees, There's no Place Like Home. Human Rights Watch. March 31, 2011. Web. December 30, 2011. http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/03/30/bhutan-s-refugees-there-s-no-place-home
- Economic freedom and happiness Daniel M. Gropper, Robert A. Lawson, Jere T. Thorne, Jr., The Cato Journal, Spring-Summer, 2011
- GDP and its enemies: the questionable search for a happiness index, Johan Norberg, Centre for European Studies, September 2010
- GDP and its enemies: the questionable search for a happiness index, Johan Norberg, EUROPEAN VIEW, Volume 9, Number 2 (2010), 281-282, DOI: 10.1007/s12290-010-0143-1
- Bhattacharjee, Arun (2003-12-19). "Bhutan Army Sees Action at Last". Atimes.com. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/EL19Df04.html. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- Wangchuk, Samten (2006-12-13). "Indo-Bhutan Border Finalised". Kuensel online. http://www.kuenselonline.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=7833. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- Giri, Pramod (2005-10-28). "Alarm over Chinese Incursion". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2006-08-24. http://web.archive.org/web/20060824075647/http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/7598_1583871,000500020006.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "中国不丹同意平等友好协商早日解决边界问题 [China and Bhutan Agree to Equal and Amicable Talks in Order to Resolve the Border Issue Quickly]" (in Chinese). News.china.com. 2005-12-01. http://news.china.com/zh_cn/domestic/945/20051201/12906175.html. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- Dorji, Gyalsten K (2011-02-15). "Bhutan establishes ties with Spain". Kuensel. http://www.kuenselonline.com/2010/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=18408. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
- "Overseas Embassies and Consulates of Bhutan". Go Abroad.com. http://www.embassiesabroad.com/embassies-of/Bhutan#18596. Retrieved 2011-03-29.
- "Bhutan Country Specific Information". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1068.html. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
- CIA—The World Factbook.
- Choudhury, A.U. (1990). "Primates in Bhutan". Oryx 24: 125.
- Choudhury, A.U. (1992). "Golden langur – Distribution Confusion". Oryx 26: 172–173.
- Choudhury, A.U. (2008). "Primates of Bhutan and Observations of Hybrid Langurs". Primate Conservation 23: 65–73.
- Choudhury, A.U. (2010). The Vanishing Herds: Wild Water Buffalo. Guwahati, India: Gibbon Books & The Rhino Foundation for Nature in North East India.
- Choudhury, A.U. (2007). "White-winged duck Cairina (=Asarcornis) scutulata and Blue-tailed Bee-eater Merops philippinus: two new country records for Bhutan.". Forktail 23: 153–155.
- "Parks of Bhutan". Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation online. Bhutan Trust Fund. http://www.bhutantrustfund.bt/parks-of-bhutan. Retrieved 2011-03-26.
- "The Organisation". Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation online. Bhutan Trust Fund. http://www.bhutantrustfund.bt/about-bhutan-trust-fund/the-organisation. Retrieved 2011-03-26.
- Wangchuk, Jigme (2011-07-08). "Addressing Human-Wildlife Conflict". Bhutan Observer online. http://www.bhutanobserver.bt/addressing-human-wildlife-conflict. Retrieved 2011-07-13.
- Sharma, Rajeev (2011-01-25). "MoUs with Bhutan on Rail Links, Power Projects". Tribuneindia.com. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2005/20050126/main5.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- "MEMBER INFORMATION: India and the WTO". World Trade Organization (WTO). Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/countries_e/india_e.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- Balaji, Mohan (2008-01-12). "In Bhutan, China and India Collide". Asia Times. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/JA12Ad02.html. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "BUDGET". The Tribune (India) online. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2002/20020301/budget.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- "Local Government Act of Bhutan 2009" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 2009-09-11. http://www.nab.gov.bt/downloadsact/Dzo74.pdf. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
- "Delimitation". Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. http://www.election-bhutan.org.bt/index.php?option=com_content&id=132&Itemid=84. Retrieved 2011-07-31.
- "Report: Data Profile". World Bank. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-08-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20080801053414/http://devdata.worldbank.org/external/CPProfile.asp?PTYPE=CP&CCODE=BTN. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
- CIA World Factbook: Bhutan
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2007–Bhutan". U.S. Department of State. 2007-09-14. Archived from the original on 9 January 2008. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90227.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-06.
- "Pastor Sentenced to Three Years in Prison". Bhutan News Service online. Bhutan News Service. 2010-12-12. http://www.bhutannewsservice.com/main-news/pastor-sentenced-to-3-yrs-in-prison. Retrieved 2011-01-25.
- "MAR | Data". Database. Center for International Development and Conflict Management, University of Maryland. http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/mar/assessment.asp?groupId=76001. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
- Kharat, Rajesh. "Bhutan's Security Scenario." Contemporary South Asia 13.2 (2004): 171-185. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Dec. 2011.
- Martin Regg, Cohn. "Lost horizon." Toronto Star (Canada) n.d.: Newspaper Source Plus. Web. 8 Dec. 2011.
- Zurick, David. "Gross National Happiness And Environmental Status In Bhutan." Geographical Review 96.4 (2006): 657-681. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Dec. 2011.
- "Bhutan – the Last Shangri La". PBS online. http://www.pbs.org/edens/bhutan. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- "Travel Requirements". Tourism Council of Bhutan. http://www.tourism.gov.bt/plan-your-trip/travel-requirements. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
- Rael, Ronald (2008). Earth Architecture. Princeton Architectural Press. p. 92. ISBN 1-56898-767-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=BsLAeifqe4EC. Retrieved 2011-10-31.
- "Country profile – Bhutan: a land frozen in time". BBC News online. 1998-02-09. Archived from the original on 11 November 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/country_profile/54627.stm. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- Amundsen, Ingun B (2001). "On Bhutanese and Tibetan Dzongs" (PDF). Journal of Bhutan Studies 5: 8–41. http://www.thlib.org/static/reprints/jbs/JBS_05_02.pdf. Retrieved 2011-10-19. (JBS)
- "1.1 University History". UTEP Handbook of Operations. University of Texas, El Paso. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. http://admin.utep.edu/Default.aspx?PageContentMode=1&tabid=30289. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Clements, William M. (2006). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife: Southeast Asia and India, Central and East Asia, Middle East. 2. Greenwood Press. pp. 106–110. ISBN 0-313-32849-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZvrWAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- Penjor, Ugyen (2003-01-19). "From Ngesem Ngesem to Khu Khu Khu ... Rigsar music woos local music fans". Kuensel online. http://www.kuenselonline.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2420. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- "Rigsar Dranyen". RAOnline. 2011-06-17. http://www.raonline.ch/pages/bt/visin/bt_music01a.html. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- Coelho, V.H. (1970). Sikkim and Bhutan. Vikas Publications, Indian Council for Cultural Relations. p. 82. http://books.google.com/books?id=KD0KAQAAIAAJ. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- Palden, Tshering (2009-09-01). "Domestic Air Service to Take Wing Soon". Kuensel online. http://www.kuenselonline.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=13325. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
- Palden, Tshering (2010-08-30). "DYT Approves Quarry Without Community Clearance". Kuensel online. http://www.kuenselonline.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=16565. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
- Dorji, Gyalsten K (2009-11-26). "Two Domestic Airports by 2010". Kuensel online. http://www.kuenselonline.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=14069. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
- Page, Jeremy (2009-12-30). "Isolated Buddhist kingdom of Bhutan to get its first railway link". The Times (Times Newspapers Ltd). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article6970997.ece. Retrieved 2011-06-10.
- Zeppa, Jamie (2000). Beyond the Sky and the Earth: A Journey into Bhutan. Penguin. ISBN 1-57322-815-X. http://books.google.com/books?id=383rWqWgga8C.
- "Icy Roads Claim Lives". Kuensel online. 2004-12-04. http://www.kuenselonline.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=4775. Retrieved 2011-07-25.
- Yeshi, Samten (2010-08-24). "Landslide at Dzong Viewpoint". Kuensel online. http://www.kuenselonline.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=16502. Retrieved 2011-07-25.
- Cited sources
- "CIA — The World Factbook". cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. 2011-05-26. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bt.html. Retrieved 2011-06-22.