Astana

Astana, has been the capital of Kazakhstan since 1997, and is the country's second largest city with an officially estimated population of 708,794 as of 1 August 2010.

Content imported from Wikipedia, The CIA World Factbook and Freebase under their respective licenses.

Astana (Russian/Kazakh: Астана, formerly known as Akmola (Kazakh: Ақмола / Aqmola, until 1998), Tselinograd (Russian: Целиноград, until 1992) and Akmolinsk (Russian: Акмолинск, until 1961)), has been the capital of Kazakhstan since 1997, and is the country's second largest city (after Almaty, the former capital) with an officially estimated population of 708,794 as of 1 August 2010.[1] It is located in the north-central portion of Kazakhstan, within Akmola Province, though administrated separately from the province as a federal city area.

The current mayor of Astana is Imangali Tasmagambetov. He was appointed on 4 April 2008.

Etymology

The word Astana in Kazakh literally means Capital but the word itself originates from Persian Astane (Persian: آستانه‎ means "sublime threshold," "royal porte" implying a royal capital city or a holy shrine town, (from the Persian verb Istadan (آستان) 'to stand' (in respect)), and literally means "threshold" (royal or sacred, where people stand in respect or awe),[citation needed] implying where the court is seated (the capital city) or the body of a sacred person is interred (a shrine town). The city of Turkestan in Kazakhstan that hosts the body of the saint Ahmad Yasavi is also called the "astana" as is the city of Mashhad in Iran that is the burial place of the 8th Shiite Imam Reza. In fact, long before becoming the new capital of Kazakhstan, the city was "an astana," a burial ground of a saint, hence the old name of the city, Ak Mola (Ақмола), "white mausoleum."

In June 2008, a parliamentary proposal was put forward to change the city's name to "Nursultan," in honor of President Nursultan Nazarbayev. The idea was rejected by Nazarbayev himself, who said the decision of renaming the city will be for future generations.[3] Despite this,[4] some commentators think that the generic name Astana was deliberately chosen so that it would be renamed in honour of Nazarbayev after his death.

History

Russian and Soviet eras



Imitation of Byzantine coin found in Astana, Central Asia, 6th century A.D.

A unit of Siberian Cossacks from Omsk founded a huge fortress on the upper Ishim in 1824, which later became the town of "Akmolinsk". During the early 20th century, the town became a major railway junction, causing a major economic boom that lasted until the Russian Civil War.

In the Stalinist era, Kazakhstan hosted a series of Gulag-like labour camps; in total, 11 camps that housed up to hundreds of thousands of internees and their families. Outside Astana, there once stood the ALZHIR camp, a Russian acronym for the Akmolinskii Camp for Wives of Traitors of the Motherland, one of the most notorious in the Gulag archipelago, which was reserved for the spouses of those considered "enemies of the people" by the government under Joseph Stalin.[5]

In 1961, it was renamed "Tselinograd" ("Virgin Lands City"[6]) and made capital of the Soviet Virgin Lands Territory (Tselinny Krai). The city was at the centre of the Virgin Lands Campaign led by Nikita Khrushchev in the 1950s, in order to turn the state into a second grain producer for the Soviet Union. The high portion of Russian immigrants in this area, which later led to ethnic tension,[citation needed] can be traced to the influx of agricultural workers at this time. Additionally, many Russian-Germans were resettled here after being deported under Joseph Stalin at the beginning of World War II, when Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union.



Radisson Hotel, Astana

Independent Kazakhstan

After Kazakhstan became independent in 1991, the city and the region were renamed "Akmola", literally meaning "White Shrine".

In 1995, the city was designated as the future capital of the newly-independent country, and the capital was officially moved from Almaty on December 10, 1997.[6] The new name, Astana, was bestowed in 1998.[7]

Government officials cited several problems with keeping the capital in Almaty, such as the city's risk of seismic activity, insufficient room for expansion, and proximity to international borders.[8] Additionally, parts of northern Kazakhstan are populated primarily by ethnic Russians, which raised fears of possible irredentist activity. Moving the capital to this area may have been an attempt to anchor it more closely with the rest of the country.[8]

To some Kazakhs, the move remains controversial. Critics cite the city's isolated location in the center of the Kazakh steppe and the forbidding climate in winter.[9] Financially, some resent the massive expenditure of public funds to build the new government complexes, as well as the continuing cost of airfare and hotel expenses for the many government workers who still live in Almaty.[10]

Geography and climate



Satellite view of Astana

Location

Astana is located in central Kazakhstan on the Ishim River in a very flat, semi-arid steppe region which covers most of the country's territory. The elevation of Astana is at 347 metres (1,138 ft) above sea level. Astana is in a spacious steppe landscape, in the transitional area between the north of Kazakhstan and the extremely thinly settled national center, because of the river Ishim. The older boroughs lie north of the river, whilst the new boroughs are located south of the Ishim.

Climate

Astana is the second coldest capital city in the world after Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, a position formerly held by Canada's capital, Ottawa, until Astana attained capital city status in 1998. Astana has an extreme continental climate with warm summers (featuring occasional brief rain showers) and long, very cold, dry winters. Summer temperatures occasionally reach +35°C (95°F) while −30 °C (−22 °F) to −35 °C (−31 °F) is not unusual between mid-December and early March. The city also holds the record for the lowest air temperature ever recorded in Kazakhstan (-51°C). Typically, the city's river freezes over between the second week of November and the beginning of April. Astana has a well deserved reputation amongst Kazakhstanis for its frequent high winds, the effect of which are felt particularly strongly on the fast-developing but relatively exposed Left Bank area of the city.

Overall, Astana has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb),[12] bordering on a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk). The average annual temperature in Astana is 3.5 °C (38.3 °F). January is the coldest month with an average temperature of −14.2 °C (6 °F). July is the hottest month with an average temperature of 20.8 °C (69 °F).

Climate data for Astana
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
4.8
(40.6)
22.1
(71.8)
29.7
(85.5)
35.7
(96.3)
40.1
(104.2)
41.6
(106.9)
38.7
(101.7)
36.2
(97.2)
26.7
(80.1)
18.5
(65.3)
4.5
(40.1)
41.6
(106.9)
Average high °C (°F) −9.9
(14.2)
−9.2
(15.4)
−2.5
(27.5)
10.9
(51.6)
20.2
(68.4)
25.8
(78.4)
26.8
(80.2)
25.2
(77.4)
18.8
(65.8)
10.0
(50.0)
−1.4
(29.5)
−8
(17.6)
8.9
(48.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −14.2
(6.4)
−14.1
(6.6)
−7.1
(19.2)
5.2
(41.4)
13.9
(57.0)
19.5
(67.1)
20.8
(69.4)
18.8
(65.8)
12.3
(54.1)
4.6
(40.3)
−5.4
(22.3)
−12.1
(10.2)
3.5
(38.3)
Average low °C (°F) −18.3
(−0.9)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−11.5
(11.3)
0.2
(32.4)
7.9
(46.2)
13.2
(55.8)
15.0
(59.0)
12.8
(55.0)
6.6
(43.9)
0.2
(32.4)
−8.9
(16.0)
−16.1
(3.0)
−1.5
(29.3)
Record low °C (°F) −51.6
(−60.9)
−48.9
(−56.0)
−38
(−36.4)
−27.7
(−17.9)
−10.8
(12.6)
−1.5
(29.3)
2.3
(36.1)
−2.2
(28.0)
−8.2
(17.2)
−25.3
(−13.5)
−39.2
(−38.6)
−43.5
(−46.3)
−51.6
(−60.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 16
(0.63)
15
(0.59)
18
(0.71)
20
(0.79)
35
(1.38)
37
(1.46)
50
(1.97)
29
(1.14)
22
(0.87)
27
(1.06)
27
(1.06)
22
(0.87)
318
(12.52)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.3 4.3 3.2 4.7 6.3 6.1 6.6 5.6 4.4 7.3 6.0 5.3 65.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 102.3 146.9 192.2 237.0 300.7 336.0 334.8 294.5 231.0 136.4 99.0 93.0 2,503.8
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[13]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun and precipitation days)[14]



Astana from space



Night Frost in Astana in January 2006

Population/Demographics



New Parliament buildings

As of July 1, 2010, Astana has a population density of 958 people per square kilometre and a population of about 705,897,[1][15] of which Kazakhs, Russians, Ukrainians, Tatars and Germans make up 65.2%, 23.8%, 2.9%, 1.7%, 1.5% respectively. Other ethnic groups make up 4.9% of Astana's population.[citation needed]

In 1999, Astana had a population of 281,000. The ethnic mix was about 30% Kazakh and 70% Russian, Ukrainian and German.[16]

By 2007, Astana's population has more than doubled since the move, to over 600,000, and it is estimated to top 1 million by 2030. Migrant workers – legal and illegal – have been attracted from across Kazakhstan and neighboring states such as Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, and Astana is a magnet for young professionals seeking to build a career. This has changed the city's demographics, bringing more ethnic Kazakhs to a city that formerly had a Slav majority. Astana's ethnic Kazakh population has risen to some 60%, up from 17% in 1989.[15]

Many[who?] argue that a drive to attract ethnic Kazakhs northward was the key factor in shifting the capital, which was officially put down to lack of space for expansion in the former capital, Almaty, and its location in an earthquake zone.

According to preliminary figures, Astana had 700,000 inhabitants in late 2007.[17] Kazakhstani official statistical service estimates city population 691,529 (1 March 2010[18]). According to the 1999 Census, 40.5% of the population is Russian, 5.7% Ukrainian, 3.0% German, 2.6% Tatar, 1.8% Belorussian and 0.8% Polish. But at 41.8%, Kazakhs outnumbered Russians and were forming the largest ethnic group, while Ingush and Korean each accounted for 0.6%. Others, mostly Uzbeks, accounted for 3.8%.

Economy



Saryarka Street in 2009

Politics and government are the main economic activities in the capital, which also forms a Special Economic Zone. Since the move, Astana has seen one of the world's greatest building projects, as oil money has been spent on government buildings, a massive home for the president, a mosque, and numerous parks and monuments. The project is designed to make the town the centre of not only Kazakhstan, but all of Central Asia.

Cityscape

Town planning

Astana can be divided largely into a few different areas.

“Almaty” District

District was created on May 6, 1998 by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Territory of “Almaty” District is 21,054 hectares (52 025 acres or 81.290 sq.miles). Population - 321.400 people. The district has five villages.

“Yesil” District

District was created on Aug. 5, 2008 by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. It occupies the territory of 31,179 hectares (77 045 acres or 120.382 sq.miles) Population - approx. 180,000 people.

“Saryarka” District

District was created on May 6, 1998 by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan The territory of “Saryarka” district is 19,202 hectares (47 449 acres or 74.139 sq.miles). Population - 296,364 people.

Description

North of the railway line, which crosses Astana in an east-west direction, are industrial and poorer residential areas. Between the railway line and the river Ishim is the city center, where at present intense building activity is occurring. To the west and east are more elevated residential areas with parks and the new area of government administration to the south of the Ishim. Here many large building projects are underway; for example, the construction of a diplomatic quarter, and a variety of different government buildings. By 2030, these quarters are to be completed. The original plans for the new Astana were drawn up by the late Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa. Astana's current chief planner, Vladimir Laptev, wants to build a Berlin in a Eurasian style. He has stated that a purely administrative capital such as Canberra is not one of his goals.

Architecture

The old buildings that remained from the Soviet era are now being removed and replaced with totally new structures resulting in significant construction work throughout the city. President Nazarbayev has paid particular attention to Astana's architecture; most of the recently completed structures had been accredited to internationally acclaimed architects and designers such as Kisho Kurokawa or Norman Foster.



2011 central Astana panorama: the domed building in the middle is the Ak Orda Presidential Palace. The wave-like building on the left is the Kazakhstan Central Concert Hall

Green water boulevard



Green water boulevard seen from the president building

Green water boulevard (also called Norzol in Kazakh: "the shining Path") is the national boulevard of Kazakhstan located in Astana.

Bayterek

Bayterek is the most famous landmark in Astana. The legend behind this tower as a symbol is that it represents a poplar tree, where the magic bird Samruk laid its egg. In the sphere on the top of Bayterek there is an imprint of president Nursultan Nazarbayev's hand.

In front of the Bayterek Tower in summer 2010, the largest open-air art exhibition ever in Kazakhstan took place: About 2.2 million people saw the international exhibition of United Buddy Bears.[19]

New buildings

Palace of Peace and Reconciliation (Pyramid of Peace)



Palace of Peace and Reconciliation (Pyramid of Peace)



The Pyramid under different light colors at night

The pyramid has been conceived and designed by architect Sir Norman Foster and engineers Buro Happold and inaugurated in September 2006. It contains accommodations for different religions: Judaism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism and other faiths. It also houses a 1,500- seat opera house, a national museum of culture, a new “university of civilization”, a library and a research center for Kazakhstan’s ethnic and geographical groups. This diversity is unified within the pure form of a pyramid, 62 meters high with a 62 x 62-meter base. The building is conceived as a global center for religious understanding, the renunciation of violence and the promotion of faith and human equality. The Pyramid of Peace expresses the spirit of Kazakhstan, where cultures, traditions and representatives of various nationalities coexist in peace, harmony and accord. Bathed in the golden and pale blue glow of the glass (colors taken from the Kazakhstan flag), 200 delegates from the world’s main religions and faiths will meet every three years in a circular chamber — based on the United Nations Security Council meeting room in New York. ; Height: {{convert|77|m|2|abbr=on}p total area: 25,500 sq.m.; Accommodates: Opera Hall for 1,500 seats, The Museum of National History, The Research Center of World Religions, Library of Spiritual Religious Literature, Exhibition and conference rooms [20]

Kazakhstan Central Concert Hall



Kazakhstan Central Concert Hall.

The Concert Hall has been conceived and designed by Italian architect Manfredi Nicoletti as a result of an International Competition and inaugurated by president Nursultan Nazarbayev in December 2009. The building shape is reminiscent of the petals of a flower. These "petals" create an imposing envelope which encloses and protects all the functions from the extreme climatic conditions of Astana. It houses one of world’s biggest Concert Halls for classical music with a total of 3,500 seats in vineyard conformation, two small music, cinema and conference halls with 400 and 200 seats each, restaurants, bars and a lobby of about 3000sqm. The main music hall has been designed to adapt to all kind of performances such as classical, pop and traditional music concerts, theatre, ballet, conferences and cinema, by means of a special false ceiling design and a system of acoustic curtains. The building is approximately 200m long and rises up to 40m high for a total of 55.000sqm. The structure of the external wall (the “petals”) are reinforced concrete. The external cladding is done with blue back-painted transparent glass panels inspired by the colour of the Kazakhstan flag.

The Islamic Center

The Islamic Center was built in 2005 and was sponsored by the Emir of Qatar. It consists of a mosque, madrasah, and a library. The mosque has 4 minarets, 63 meters each, and has a capacity of 5,000 people. The height of the mosque's dome is 43 meters.[21]

Ak Orda Presidential Palace



Ak Orda Presidential Palace

Ak Orda (Kazakh, "the white horde") is the official workplace of the President of Kazakhstan. Ak Orda Presidential Palace was built in 2004 of monolithic concrete as a five-story building. The lining was performed using 20–40 cm thick Italian marble. The height of the building is 80 meters and the total area is 36,720 square meters. Ak Orda includes a yurt-like hall designed of marble and granite, a marble hall for summits and official visits by foreign-country representatives, and a golden hall for negotiations and private discussions between the head of the state and the leaders of other countries.

Khan Shatyr



Khan Shatyry Entertainment Center

In December 2006, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev unveiled plans to build Khan Shatyr, a "giant, transparent tent", over an area of the city. The project was completed in July 2010. The tent is 150 meters high, and like the pyramid was designed by the British team of Norman Foster and Buro Happold

Transport Tower

Transport Tower is one of the tallest buildings in Kazakhstan, standing 150 meters high, its 34 stories completed in 2003. The building houses various governmental agencies and organizations, namely the Ministry of Transportation and Telecommunications.

Sightseeing

In the centre of town, the Avenue of the Republic acts as the main hub of activity. It is bordered by many stores, coffee houses, restaurants, nightclubs and some casinos. Notable among these are the:

  • Modern governmental quarter
  • Ishim River waterfront
  • "Oceanarium"
  • Astana Central National Mosque
  • Islamic Center
  • Roman Catholic Cathedral (see Roman Catholicism in Kazakhstan)
  • Market hall
  • Bayterek Tower
  • REVision Park Cinema in English: Every Tuesday at 8pm, 24 Turan St. Sary Arka Shopping Mall (3d Floor).,[22] Revision Park is a new project of Language Leader[23] and KinoPark Multiplex cinemas.[24]

Museums

  • Presidential Center of Culture
  • Kabanbai Batyr Mausoleum
  • Atameken Ethnic Memorial Complex: dedicated to a map of Kazakhstan. Ata-meken means ‘fatherland’.
  • The S. Seifullin Museum
  • Museum of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Theatres

  • The Gorky Russian Drama Theatre
  • The Kalibak Kuanyshev Kazakh Theatre: named after a Kazakh theatre actor
  • The K. Baiseitova National Opera and Ballet Theatre
  • The Tilep Kobyz Sarayi: named after a Kazakh kobyz player Tilep (www.tilep.kz)

Monuments

  • Monument Otan Korgaushylar
  • Memorial to the victims of political repressions
  • Memorial to Kazakhstan People who Perished in the Afghan War
  • Central Square with fountain and sculpture composition
  • Monument to Kenesary Khan

Architectural monuments

  • Church of Constantine and Helena
  • 19th-century buildings
  • Green Mosque Fence

Sport

Astana is home to FC Astana and FC Astana-64, of which the latter won the national championship in 2000, 2001 and 2006. The city is also home to the Astana Tigers basketball team who successfully took the 2004/2005 season title, as well as Barys Astana of the Kontinental Hockey League. In addition, Astana has a professional cycling team. They participated in the 2007 Tour de France wearing uniforms in Kazakhstani national colors, but were excluded during the race after the failed test of Alexander Vinokourov for illegal doping practises, and was banned from the 2008 race.[25] Astana returned to the Tour de France in 2009 and won the overall Team Classification, with Alberto Contador and Lance Armstrong finishing first and third respectively. In 2010 Contador again won the Tour de France with the Astana team, but announced in August 2010 that he would be leaving the Astana team to join the Sunguard-SaxoBank team in 2011.

A bandy team by the name of Dynamo-Astana has been formed, and an indoor bandy arena is being built for Dynamo.[26] The 2011 Asian Winter Games were partly held in the capital.

Club Sport Founded League Venue
FC Astana Football 2009 Kazakhstan Premier League Astana Arena
FC Astana-64 Football 1964 Kazakhstan Premier League K. Munaitpasov Stadium
Astana Cycling 2007 UCI ProTour
Astana Tigers Basketball 2000 Kazakh Basketball League
Barys Astana Ice hockey 1999 Kontinental Hockey League, Kazakh Ice Hockey League Alatau Sports Palace

Transport



Astana International Airport

Astana International Airport was, like the plan for the whole new city, designed by the late Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa. The Astana Metro is a planned underground construction in Astana.

Astana Train Station is an important hub for northern Kazakhstan, served by Qazaqstan Temir Zholy trains to most major cities in Kazakhstan, including Talgo expresses to Almaty. International trains leave for Russia, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan, most of them with a once a week frequency. Since the summer of 2008, the schedule systems show also a direct weekly train to Urumqi (in China's Xinjiang).[27]

Notable residents

  • Larisa Bergen, Olympic volleyball medalist
  • Yaroslava Shvedova, Tennis Player
  • Galina Voskoboeva, Tennis Player
  • Alexander Kazantsev, Science Fiction writer

International relations

Twin towns / Sister cities

Astana is twinned with:

  • İzmir, Turkey
  • Ankara, Turkey
  • Moscow, Russia
  • Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • Kazan, Russia
  • Saint Petersburg, Russia
  • Amman, Jordan
  • Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Riga, Latvia[28]
  • Gdańsk, Poland (since 1996)[29]
  • Warsaw, Poland[30]
  • Tbilisi, Georgia (since 2005) [31]
  • Seoul, South Korea
  • Manila, Philippines[32]
  • Beijing, China[33]
  • Margate, England, United Kingdom

References

Bibliography

  • Schatz, Edward. Modern Clan Politics: The Power of "Blood" in Kazakhstan and Beyond. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 2004.

Notes

  1. 2010 жыл басынан 1 тамызға дейінгі Қазақстан Республикасы халық санының өзгеруі туралы
  2. CODE OF ACCESS
  3. Don't name capital after me yet, says Kazakh president AFP
  4. Astana, Kazakhstan: the space station in the steppes, Guardian
  5. Pope Pays Tribute to Victims of Soviet Atrocities
  6. "Little-Known Akmola Becomes New Kazakh Capital", Reuters, December 11, 1997, accessed 2010-08-08
  7. BBC Kazakhstan Timeline
  8. Schatz, 76.
  9. Green, Peter (11 June 1998). "Kazakhs Raise Curtain on Remote New Capital, but Many Ask Why". International Herald-Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/1998/06/11/kazak.t_0.php.
  10. Kazakhstan's Capital Holds a Lavish Anniversary Celebration Euraisanet
  11. Climate Information for Astana World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 14 August 2012
  12. Updated Central, South, Southeast, and Eastern Asian and Siberian Map of the Köppen climate classification system.
  13. "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Astana" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. http://pogoda.ru.net/climate/35188.htm. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  14. Climatological Information for Astana, Kazakhstan. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  15. Kazakhstan's Capital Holds A Lavish Anniversary Celebration
  16. "Astana". Angelfire.com. http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/bashiri/Astana/Astana.html. Retrieved 2012-10-21.
  17. [1][dead link]
  18. Statistical Service of Kazakhstan. Population estimations 1 March 2010
  19. ART CENTER "KULANSHI" (www.kulanshi.org)
  20. The Palace Of Peace and Concord (Pyramid), Astana, Kazakhstan
  21. 4 минарета по 63 метра каждый... Катар достраивает в Астане Исламский культурный центр
  22. "Revision Park". Languageleader.kz. http://languageleader.kz/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=82. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
  23. languageleader.kz
  24. "KINOPARK | [Re]Vision Park | Сеть кинотеатров Multiplex Cinemas | Киноафиша Казахстана, Алматы, Астана, Шымкент, Актобе. Фильмы в Кинопарке, трейлеры, постеры, кадры из фильма, анонсы, расписание кино, новости, киноархив, кинофорум и многое другое". Kinopark.kz. http://kinopark.kz/revision_park/?lang=ru. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
  25. Tour de France organizers exclude Astana team; Alberto Contador may not defend title
  26. "Translation result for http://www.bandynet.ru/node/6077". Babelfish.yahoo.com. http://babelfish.yahoo.com/translate_url?doit=done&tt=url&intl=1&fr=bf-home&trurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bandynet.ru%2Fnode%2F6077&lp=ru_en&btnTrUrl=Translate. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
  27. Train No. 054 Astana – Urumchi
  28. "Twin cities of Riga". Riga City Council. http://www.riga.lv/EN/Channels/Riga_Municipality/Twin_cities_of_Riga/default.htm. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
  29. "Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'" (in Polish & English). © 2009 Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. http://www.gdansk.pl/samorzad,62,733.html. Retrieved 11 July 2009.
  30. "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". um.warszawa.pl. Biuro Promocji Miasta. 4 May 2005. http://um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/new/index.php?dzial=aktualnosci&ak_id=3284&kat=11. Retrieved 29 August 2008.[dead link]
  31. "Tbilisi Municipal Portal – Sister Cities". © 2009 – Tbilisi City Hall. http://www.tbilisi.gov.ge/index.php?lang_id=ENG&sec_id=4571. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
  32. "Existing Sister Cities". City of Manila. http://www.manila.gov.ph/localgovt.htm#sistercities. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
  33. "Sister Cities". Beijing Municipal Government. http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Sister_Cities/Sister_City/. Retrieved 23 June 2009.